• The Counsellor’s Experience of Aloneness And Its Impact on The Therapeutic Relationship: A Heuristic Study

      Mintz, Rita; Phillips, Lorraine (University of Chester, 2020-05-25)
      Aims and Method: This small scale study explored counsellors’ experiences of aloneness and how this influenced the therapeutic relationship. The research was conducted within a qualitative paradigm and used a heuristic methodology. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with four therapists who had expressed an interest in exploring their perceptions of this phenomenon. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data from these dialogues. Findings: Two overarching themes emerged from the data (Braun & Clarke, 2013): Personal experience of aloneness and Awareness of aloneness and the therapeutic space (the therapist’s perspective). Seven themes were highlighted under these two main headings: aloneness provides space, aloneness affects attachments, aloneness as a choice, the uniqueness of aloneness experience, aloneness is not always understood by others, how aloneness affects the therapeutic relationships, and the final theme is aloneness and self-care as a therapist. Conclusion: Our experiences of aloneness are unique and complex and how these encounters are defined, and the skills needed to be alone, are still little understood. This investigation explored individual experience of aloneness and has provided insight into how the phenomenon affects relationships with clients in the therapeutic space. It adds to a general conversation on loneliness, aloneness and solitude, and shines a light on the little researched association of our alone experiences impacting on the counselling relationship. Key Words: Aloneness, Therapeutic Relationship, Counsellor
    • An exploration of women’s experiences of emotional ambivalence during their first trimester of pregnancy and their perceptions of psychosocial support during that time

      Mintz, Rita; Lemanski, Louise A (University of Chester, 2020-04-22)
      The first trimester is a vital stage of pregnancy. Many important developmental changes take place for both mother and baby during this time. These changes are vast and fast paced and encompass changes to a woman’s body, their emotional and also their social wellbeing. This qualitative study aimed to gain insight into women’s experiences of emotional ambivalence and their perception of psychosocial support during the stage of the first trimester of pregnancy. Through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), super-ordinate themes and sub-ordinate themes were identified. Hearing first-hand accounts of four women’s lived experiences highlighted the prevalence of emotional ambivalence during the first trimester. It also exposed the reality and impact of perceived support that was deemed beneficial including support from significant relationships and support that was considered lacking including emotional holding and individually-led support. This study has added to the conversation that there is scope for further research with the view to addressing women’s mental and emotional wellbeing and the standard of perceived support they receive during the first trimester of pregnancy.
    • Cyclic fatigue resistance of nickel titanium rotary files in the martensitic state: a systematic review.

      Cowling, Steve; Harrison, Trisalda (University of Chester, 2020-04-16)
      Background: There are many factors which effect the cyclic fatigue resistance of Nickel titanium or NiTi files. The metal can exist in a soft martensitic state which is thought to improve the resistance to cyclic fatigue. The NiTi alloy transforms from one state to the other at a certain temperature and various factors can modify this transition temperature. Temperature effects the state of the metal so the way the file acts at intracanal temperature is significant. Most cyclic fatigue tests have been carried out at room temperature. Objectives: Identifying martensitic files and whether the resistance to cyclic fatigue is greater in these files at intracanal temperature. Methods: A PICOS is used to formulate the review question. It provides a framework to develop inclusion and exclusion criteria. Search terms are used on the databases Science Direct, Wiley, PubMed and Google Scholar. A single reviewer screened the results, applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results are analysed and a descriptive analysis carried out. A Joanna Briggs checklist for cohort studies is used to assess the quality of the studies. An assessment of bias in the primary studies and bias in the review process is carried out. Keywords: cyclic fatigue, martensitic, intracanal temperature, CM files, Gold files, Blue files, EDM files. Results: The overall quality of the included studies was judged as moderate. However, cyclic fatigue testing methods have no standardisation, so it is difficult to compare studies. Many studies did not show evidence of sample size calculation and this was not taken into consideration by the scoring system for quality assessment. Within the limitations of the study it is found that at intracanal temperature, Hyflex EDMTM is potentially martensitic, existing in the R-phase which is considered to be a martensitic phase. It is also found that a wide range of 30.8 °C – 36 °C exists for intracanal temperature. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study it is found that the Hyflex EDM file is martensitic at intracanal temperature and has a higher cyclic fatigue resistance than the other martensitic phase files. Most of the martensitic phase files identified possessed a greater cyclic fatigue resistance than the other files tested.
    • Finding My Voice: A Qualitative Exploration into the Perceived Impact of Person-Centred Counsellor Training upon Counsellors who were Adopted as a Baby

      Parkes, Charlotte Hannah (University of Chester, 2020-04-07)
      This small-scale qualitative study explores how qualified Person-Centred counsellors who were adopted as a baby perceived the impact of their Person-Centred counselling training. The study focused on the adoptees’ experiences of adoption and how these influenced their experience of Person-Centred counselling training. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews from three qualified Person-Centred counsellors who were adopted as babies. The data was analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to gain insight into how the participants made sense of their lived experience. The findings supported the difficulties associated with adoption which are present in existing literature and research but also placed an emphasis on the particular vulnerabilities associated with being adopted as a baby. The findings further highlighted the positive impact Person-Centred Counselling training had on the participants’ personal development including: increased self-awareness, self-acceptance, identity development and having a voice. The findings confer implications for clinical practice in understanding the experience of adoptees who were adopted as a baby as well as the significant aspects of Person-Centred counselling training which facilitated the participants’ positive self-development. The links made between adoption and Person-Centred training are an original area of research and are worthy of further exploration. They elucidate the healing aspects of the approach and offer hope in overcoming human adversity.
    • The death of a mother in adolescence. A qualitative study of the perceived impact on a woman’s adult life and the parent she becomes.

      Mintz, Rita; Hardman, Rachael J. (University of Chester, 2020-03-10)
      Aim: The purpose of this research was to explore the lived experience and meaning of the unique stories of women who had been bereaved of their mothers during their adolescence. The objective: to develop and enhance an understanding of the perceived impact on their adult life and subsequent approach to motherhood. Method: This qualitative study was conducted by using semi-structured interviews with four participants, all of whom were mothers and over forty years of age to allow for retrospect. Data was analysed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Findings: The study revealed five main themes, all with striking similarity amongst participants. The findings indicated that the effect of mother death in adolescence was influenced by contextual factors such as suppression of grief through silence and behaviour of surviving parent. All participants reported an enduring psychological effect from their experience; an enduring sense of hurt; feelings of low self-esteem; anger; insecurity; anxiety; neediness and chronic sorrow for both themselves and their mothers. Sadness stemmed from continuous mourning felt through the loss of an adult relationship with their mothers and an awareness of having lost an aspect of themselves. The study identified a ‘ripple effect’ to future generations and established an effect on parenting, with mothers identifying themselves as anxious, uncertain, protective and over compensatory. The study also highlighted facets of posttraumatic growth. Aspects of their healing process were described by participants, including a felt sense of continuing connection with their mothers. All participants believed that they had developed positive character traits as a result of their loss, such as strength and empathy. Furthermore, with age and motherhood, participants experienced an enhanced awareness and self-understanding which afforded them some comfort. Conclusion: This work contributes to growing research suggesting ‘particular effect’ of mother death in adolescence and the subsequent impact on motherhood. Through participants’ words this research details how this experience shaped their lives and reiterates the enormity of loss and its ripple effect. Through the distinct similarities of participant responses, it affirms this phenomenon which has significance not only for women bereaved of their mothers in adolescence but for counsellors’ understanding of this phenomenon.
    • Manipulation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Restriction Factors: RPRD2, SERINC3 and SERINC5

      Ariyo, Olumuyiwa E. (University of Chester, 2020-02-28)
      Background: There is a need for a newer approach to tackle human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to limitations of the current antiretrovirals, innate cell restriction factors offer such opportunity. This study seeks to characterise three novel HIV restriction factors and explore their therapeutic potentials. Methods: Jurkat cell line was treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a toll-like receptor-3 agonist (TLR3), at different concentrations (5 µg/ml, 10 µg/ml, 20 µg/ml) and (4 µg/ml, 8 µg/ml, 12 µg/ml) and untreated controls. Its effects on cellular proliferation were observed over many hours. A bioinformatic search of Regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain-containing 2 (RPRD2) and Serine incorporator 3 and 5 (SERINC3 and SERINC5) were conducted to predict for nuclear localisation signal (NLS) and potential ubiquitination and Sumoylation sites in the proteins using online NLS Mapper, UbPred and GPS-SUMO tools respectively. Small interference RNA (siRNA) transfection of Jurkat cell line was done to knockdown karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2) using Lipofectamine 3000. Western blot analysis was done to assess transfection efficiency. Results: Jurkat cells treated with 5 µg/ml, 10 µg/ml and 20 µg/ml proliferated more than the control while those treated with 4 µg/ml, 8 µg/ml and 12 µg/ml proliferated less with statistical significance between the untreated and 4 µg/ml concentration at 72 hours (p = 0.021).RPRD2 was the only protein that has NLS (RDPFHSLKRPRPPFARGPPFFAPKRPFFP)at position 1430 with a score of 9.8. RPRD2 has a site predicted each for SUMO interaction and sumoylation consensus (p = 0.022), SERINC3 had six sites for SUMO interactions and 2 for sumoylation non-consensus, all with no statistical significance and SERINC5 has a significant SUMO interaction site at position 44-48 (p = 0.049). The predicted ubiquitination sites for RPRD2 were 44 (ten with high, 27 with medium and seven with low confidence respectively), SERINC3 had four sites (two with medium and low confidence each) and SERINC5 had three (one with high, medium and low confidence each). The KPNA2 knockdown was not successful. Conclusion: HIV restriction factors present a potential therapeutic target; adequate characterisation of these proteins is important towards fashioning drugs in this regard. Keywords: Toll-like receptor 3, Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), Nuclear localisation signal, Sumoylation, Ubiquitination, Karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2)
    • AKR1C3 inhibition by curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin: an investigation

      Calhoon, Brecken (University of Chester, 2019-10-02)
      Background: Aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) has been shown to be overexpressed in cancers due to its regulatory roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. Curcumin, known to have anti-tumour properties, and its analogues demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) were studied to determine their inhibitory effects on the AKR1C3 enzyme. Methods: AKR1C3 was purified and analysed to determine its protein concentration in transformed Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. Enzyme assays equaling 1 mL contained 2.82 mg/mL AKR1C3, 50 μM of 3 mM NADPH, and varying volumes of potassium phosphate (50 mM, pH 6.5), 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ), and inhibitors were measured at 340 nm. The Vmax, Km, KI, and 2 of AKR1C3 in the presence and absence of inhibitors were determined using a non- linear regression analysis on Fig.P Software. Results: PQ alone found Vmax = 0.47 IU/mg, Km = .435 μM, Ki = 6.29 μM, and 2 = 0.946. Inhibitor potency was BDMC > DMC > curcumin in the presence of 1 μM PQ. Further analysis of BDMC indicated mixed inhibition (Vmax = 0.46 IU/mg, Km = .406 μM, Ki = 1.59 μM, and 2 = 0.970). Further analysis of PQ at higher concentrations found a divergence from Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a decrease in AKR1C3 activity after Vmax was reached. Conclusions: BDMC was the more potent inhibitor of AKR1C3 in transformed E. coli compared to DMC and curcumin. The results suggest mixed inhibition of AKR1C3 in the presence of BDMC. Additional analysis of PQ at higher concentrations saw a loss of Michaelis-Menten kinetics as the activity of AKR1C3 decreased after reaching Vmax. This requires further examination.
    • All Emotions Matter: A Literature-Based Exploration into the Value of Emotions that can have Negative Connotations in Today’s World

      Colam, Veronica (University of Chester, 2019-05)
      This research explores the value of integrating all emotions for well-being, including those that can have negative connotations in today’s world. Contemporary Western culture, possibly influenced by the positive psychology movement, has placed emphasis on the pursuit of happiness. Emotions that may be classified as negative can be rejected, distorted or denied as they may be viewed as undesirable or harmful. This study has the potential to contribute to the understanding of the vital functions that emotions with negative connotations can serve. The basic emotions of anger and sadness are highlighted for closer examination. The study is literature-based using thematic analysis as the qualitative research method. The key findings indicate support for emotions with negative connotations such as anger and sadness making a constructive contribution to the maintenance of healthy, close interpersonal relationships. Influences on how emotions are experienced and expressed are diverse and can include the following: biological, historical, cultural, social and gender role stereotypes. Assertively expressing emotions can be beneficial whereas chronic suppression may be detrimental to health and well-being. The ability to choose flexibly between both expression and suppression of emotions is the most valuable approach, depending on the context, relationship and the individual. The main conclusion drawn from the study is that the experience and expression of emotions that can have negative connotations can contribute to our health and well-being, when used intelligently. This dissertation recommends promoting the potential value of emotions that can have negative connotations through emotional intelligence competencies, emotion regulation and therapy.
    • The influence of the position of the lower jaw on human performance in athletes

      Haughey, John (University of Chester, 2019-03-04)
      Mouth guards are widely used by athletes for the protection of the orofacial region from trauma during training and competition. A mouth guard will change the position of the lower jaw of the athlete when worn. This literature review looked at the findings of current research on the effect of mouth guard use on athletic performance. Studies which investigated the possibility of a negative impact on performance from wearing a mouth guard generally concluded that there is no negative impact on performance. Some other studies suggested there is no impact on performance with mouth guard use in sport and a larger number of studies observed positive influences on performance. The position of the lower jaw during mouth guard use in comparison to wearing no mouth guard is the common reason given for the positive improvement observed in performance. There is a lack of consensus in the current research of the mechanism or connection between lower jaw position and performance. This literature review raises the question, does the position of the lower jaw affect human performance?
    • Food Literacy: Insights from UK Nutrition and Health Professionals on an Emerging Concept

      Kennedy, Lynne; Simon, Mariana (University of Chester, 2019-02-28)
      Review paper abstract: Today’s foodscape is characterized by an abundance of unhealthy food and food practices, and evidence suggests that this has negatively impacted on people’s health and wellbeing, leading to the modern malnutrition of obesity and chronic diseases. Food literacy concept has emerged as a promising tool to help people navigate the food system in a health-enhancing manner and so, take control over their dietary practices and behaviours. Food literacy has built momentum by being employed either implicitly or explicitly in dietary interventions, and this led to an increased interest of researchers to establish a shared meaning of the term. This study aimed to explore the current understanding of the food literacy concept and, possibly identify any gaps in the existing literature that may help reach a consensus on its definition and conceptual framework. For this purpose, it provided an overview of the food literacy definitions, components and competencies as well as its association with other health-related concepts, such as nutrition and health literacy. It followed a systematic review approach and discussed 19 paper articles which were selected based on their contribution to the conceptual framework of the term and the understanding of its relationship with other health-related concepts. Although a relatively novel concept, many variations of the definitions, components and competencies of food literacy could be identified in the current literature. This suggests that food literacy concept is subject to the environmental dynamics and, therefore, it calls for understanding and conceptualization in the light of one’s personal and environmental experiences. A gap in the existing literature concerned with food literacy education has been identified through the absence of any research on this topic conducted in the UK context. Research paper abstract: Globally, food systems continue to grow in complexity and, consequently, it becomes more difficult for people to engage in healthy food practices. This ‘food confusion’ may lead to unhealthy eating patterns and, consequently to diet-related diseases. This concern urged health practitioners and public health policy-makers to find optimal solutions to re-connect people with their food in a health-enhancing manner. The ‘food literacy’ concept emerged as a promising tool to foster positive food relationships and so, help people maintain and improve their health. It has been argued that the components and competencies of food literacy are not static but influenced by one’s personal and environmental experiences. There are many variations of the food literacy definition and competencies, however, this concept has not been explored and defined in the UK context. This study aimed to explore the food literacy concept, its defining components and key determinants in the UK context. The objectives were to capture the views of UK health and nutrition professionals on this emerging concept and construct a conceptual framework of the term. The World Café research technique was employed to explore participants’ understanding of the concept of food literacy and the thematic analysis method was used to analyze their views on this topic. The findings revealed a wide range of competencies clustered into two main domains: Applied Food Education and Empowerment and Food Ethics. Key determinants impacting on food literacy were identified at two levels: Agency (personal capabilities) and Structure (System capabilities). The conceptual framework of food literacy as understood in the UK context as well as identifying the influencing factors may help UK health practitioners and public health policy-makers to use food literacy explicitly in health-promoting dietary interventions and food education programmes.
    • “Some are gay, some are straight, no one actually cares as long as you’re there to play hockey”: Women’s field hockey players’ engagement with sexual identity discourses

      McEvilly, Nollaig; Whitehouse, Lauren E (University of Chester, 2019-02-13)
      This research investigates the discourses that have impacted recreational women’s hockey players’ perspectives and experiences surrounding sexual identity. Furthermore, the participants’ engagement with sexual identity discourses and through what discursive practices and disciplinary techniques sexual identities became dominant or alternative is examined. The experiences of and towards non-heterosexual sportspeople is a developing area of research, though little research focuses on recreational level sport that is not identified as a ‘gay sport space’. This study contributes to sexuality and sport research by investigating a recreational women’s team which is not restricted to the ‘gay sport space’ label to develop understandings of the dynamics and complexities that sexual identity discourses have on both heterosexual and non-heterosexual sportspeople. A poststructural, Foucaultian theoretical framework underpins this study with the utilisation of Foucault’s work on discourses, techniques of power and the technologies of the self. Data is generated from semi-structured interviews with seven hockey players, who discuss their experiences regarding sexual identity at Castle Ladies Hockey Club. By analysing the participants’ talk through discourse analysis, discourses of acceptance and inclusivity towards non-heterosexual identities are found. Firstly, non-heterosexual identities are regarded as ‘normal’, secondly, the focus was on if the player was a good team player rather than sexual identity, and thirdly, there was an increased acceptance of sexual fluidity leading to decreased tolerance towards homophobia. This research highlights that players engage with multiple discourses associated with sexual identity, often complexly. This raises questions surrounding the dominance of heteronormativity, as non-heterosexual identities are not presented as marginal.
    • Sugar Reduction in Sponge Cakes: Physical and Sensory Properties of Sponge Cake with Sugar Alternatives - Maltitol /Steviol glycosides/Polydextrose/ Inulin

      Li, Weili; Mao, Kuangqi (University of Chester, 2019-01-31)
      Challenges in reducing sugar in foods have been serious global issues as an excessive intake of sugar causes negative effects on human health, even though sugar plays a key role in the structural and sensory attributes of food products. Therefore, it is urgent for food industries to find an alternative to reduce the sugar content of foods without any noticeable effect, such as using sugar replacements to substitute the role of sugar in high-sugar foods. The first aim of this study was to verify the function of sugar in sponge cakes. The second was to compare the effects between sugar and sugar alternatives on sponge cakes in order to explore feasible sugar replacements. In current study, the effects of sugar on physical properties of sponge cake and batter were first studied in terms of different concentrations. Then the effects of replacement by maltitol, polydextrose, inulin and steviol glycosides were extensively studied using the same concentrations with regarding to sugar. Batter viscosity and specific gravity were analysed before baking. Cake physical properties were also studied through image analysis, specific gravity, height, weight loss and firmness. In addition, sensory testing was also carried out to explore the feasible sugar replacement. Experimental results showed that sugar truly exerted crucial functions in cakes manufacture, like increasing the batter viscosity and the cake volume. Significant improvement in physical properties of cakes, especially in terms of specific gravity and specific volume, can be found as the sugar level reached by 140% (P<0.05). In regard to sugar-free sponge cakes, best results in physical properties can be obtained from cakes elaborated with maltitol when the containing level was 140%. Compared with sugar, closest results can be achieved by maltitol due to the similar structure and properties. Meanwhile, cakes elaborated with maltitol got the highest overall liking level in sensory evaluation. Cakes with polydextrose showed a relatively worse performance in physical property testing and sensory evaluation due to the weaker bulking function and sweetness of polydextrose. However, the addition of steviol glycosides can improve the sensory properties to some extent. In addition, inulin appeared to be unfeasible to replace sugar according to the result obtained in this study because it led to the lowest quality of sponge cakes in physical properties or sensory attributes.
    • A qualitative exploration of therapists’ experience of working therapeutically pre-trial within the Crown Prosecution Service guidelines with adult clients who have reported sexual violence

      Kiyimba, Nikki; Nixon, Madelyn A. (University of Chester, 2019-01-24)
      This research is one of the first qualitative studies to explore the lived experience of therapists who were working pre-trial, within the Crown Prosecution Service guidelines with adult clients who had reported sexual assault. The aim of the study was to obtain a detailed account of the therapists’ experience in order to acquire a deeper understanding of how the participants created meaning from their practice. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis was chosen as an appropriate approach to analyse the data gathered. Semi-structured interviews took place with six therapists. Upon analysis five super-ordinate themes emerged which were, i) the differences between pre-trial therapy and generic therapy, ii) the psychological impact of working with this client group, iii) the complexity of the work, and competency of the therapists, iv) the dilemmas and conflicts inherent in the work, and v) an expression of a loss of faith in the Criminal Justice System. These findings illustrated the complexities that therapists are faced with when working with clients’ pre-trial. A discussion is provided relating to the extensive research that has been carried out since the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) guidelines were written in 2001 into the fallibility of memory following a traumatic incident, and the developments that have taken place in therapeutic techniques. In light of recent research and developments in therapy, it is suggested that there is potentially an argument for the need for a review and update into the current CPS guidelines into the provision of therapy for vulnerable or intimidated adults prior to trial. It is also recommended that further research is needed into whether the fallibility of memory following a traumatic incident improves after the person has undertaken an appropriate evidence-based trauma-specific treatment, and the possible need for a central register of therapists that are qualified to offer pre-trial therapy.
    • Digital marketing and young consumers: A framework for effective digital marketing communications

      Maheshwari, Vish; Morris, Bethan (University of Chester, 2019-01-22)
      Children in contemporary society are an important and lucrative consumer segment (Haryanto, Moutinho, & Coelho, 2016). They have both individual spending power, and significant influence over the purchase decisions of their parents and carers (Calvert, 2008). Brands have recognised the business benefits of engaging with consumers at an early age in order to develop profitable lifelong consumer relationships (Hamelin, Gbadamosi, & Peters, 2018) Developments in online communications, especially since the emergence of Web 2.0, has enabled businesses to build a presence in an interactive and co-creative online environment (Ryan, 2014). In the UK, consumer use of interactive technologies is pervasive. Smartphone penetration in the UK in 2016 was 81 per cent (Deloitte, 2016). The Consumerisation of ICT is particularly visible in children, born since 2000 who have grown up in the interactive era of Web 2.0 (Carter, Bennett Thatcher, Applefield, & McAlpine, 2011). 99 per cent of UK families have internet access in their home (ONS, 2016) and 83 per cent of 5 to 15 year olds have access to a mobile ICT device in their household. It is estimated that one third of all online users are below the age of 18 (Livingstone, Carr, & Byrne, 2016). Young consumers therefore have access multiple channels for communication and engagement with peers, family, and businesses. At a time when children have become proficient navigators of the online marketplace there is a real importance for marketers to understand how to communicate effectively with this segment (Thiachon, 2017). Children have been recognised as a distinguishable consumer segment since the mid-twentieth century. The study of children’s consumer socialisation emerged during the 1970s (Roedder John, 1999). In the years following, academic understanding of consumer socialisation has influenced government policy in areas of public health and child welfare, as well as influencing the self-regulation of marketing and advertising practice (Jordan, 2008). The body of existing research is predominantly focused on these areas rather than how marketers can effectively communicate with young consumers. Studies that do focus on marketing communications have done so by examining practices in relation to brand loyalty and trust (Haryanto, Manuela, & Moutinho, 2015 ; Haryanto, Moutinho, & Arnaldo, 2016). Although they provide recommendations that highlight the importance of these concepts in developing communications with young consumers, they do not identify the types of approaches to employ in order to achieve these relationships with consumers. As public policy concerns provided the impetus for research in this area, it is unsurprising that there is a concentration of research investigating the influence of marketing communications on young consumers within the context of public health. Children in this context are positioned passive and vulnerable members of society (Haefner, 1975; Roedder John, 1999; Calvert, 2008; Sramová & Pavelka, 2017). Although this approach is valid and provides valuable insights, academic understanding of young consumers would be limited if research was generated only from this perspective. This study will aim to address this gap in understanding, acknowledging that children have expanded their roles within the family as purchase influencers and independent purchase decision makers. The research will examine current Digital Marketing Communication (DMC) practices employed by brands whose products are aimed at young consumers. For the purposes of providing research focus, children are defined as individuals aged 17 and under.
    • ‘Am I not a Man, whose nature is frail, and prone to error?’ An evaluation of Matthew Lewis’s The Monk as a work of tragedy

      Royston-Tonks, Carol A. (University of Chester, 2019)
      This dissertation is an argument for the re-evaluation of Matthew Lewis’s Ambrosio the Monk as a figure of tragedy instead of villainy. By identifying the characteristics of tragedy within the Gothic text, Ambrosio can be shown to fulfil the tenets of the tragic hero as established by Aristotle. Because of this, the reader can experience the tragic response of catharsis because of the pity and sympathy that Ambrosio as a tragic hero can inspire in the reader. For sympathy to be extended to the Gothic, a Romantic sensibility of the primacy of the self, analogous to that of the Renaissance humanist, must be established. The development of this Romantic Sensibility is explored with acknowledgement of the influence upon it by the Renaissance tragedians, thus establishing a chain of literary connections from the ancient tragedy to the Romantic Gothic. By recognising the shared humanity of the Gothic villain and the reader, the sympathy and pity necessary for the tragic response is extended to the Gothic villain which is transformed to a figure of tragedy.
    • The Intrusive Supernatural: Disruptions to Order in Nineteenth-Century Society

      Moss, Ethan J. (University of Chester, 2018-11-28)
      The Nineteenth Century was an era of frequent change, making Victorian identity increasingly difficult to identify as the divisions in society splintered the various forms of religious, political and social beliefs of the British public. Within the shadows of all these changes lurked a frequent motif of supernatural intrusion, inserting some form of superstitious element into the multiple aspects of Victorian living. This additional supernatural attribute contributed to the convoluted nature of Victorian existence, destabilising the realities and the perceptions of the social order through a paradoxical age of both rationalism and superstition. This work will aim to identify the uses of the intrusive supernatural concept in nineteenth-century literature and culture, as well as the consequences that follow its incorporation. The essay will establish the habits of the intrusive supernatural and determine whether it exists as a product or cause of the changes to nineteenth-century life. Subsequently the essay shall seek to explore the relationship between the supernatural and disruptions to the supposed natural order of Victorian society. The research into this subject will involve the exploration of both metaphorical and literary uses of the supernatural, as well as the genuine attempts to confront supernatural phenomena in Victorian culture.
    • ‘With whom shall I identify?’: Nineteenth-Century Representations of Parental Influences and Adolescent Identity Formation

      Ravenscroft, Michelle D. (University of Chester, 2018-11-26)
      This inter-disciplinary research considers cultural influences, such as religion and education, on adolescent identity formation and parental role-models in nineteenth-century texts. Definitions and representations of constructed identities are explored in relation to the influence of cultural factors using twentieth-century psychological, sociological and psychiatric theories surrounding adolescent and parental identity. Representations of adolescent experiences and parental influences within the home and society reflect changing attitudes towards shifting gender boundaries throughout the century. The conflict of changing family dynamics, in relation to parental roles and authority, are also considered with regards to how these influence the adolescent during this critical life-stage. The conflict and crisis involved in the process of adolescent identity formation is linked to the need for the adolescent to identify with a successful role-model. The analysis of representations of socially constructed role-models in the nineteenth-century suggests there are many factors that determine the success or failure of an adopted identity. This research supports the theory that the concept of a problematic adolescence is not borne out of the inability of adolescents to form an identity, rather the inability of nineteenth-century parents to provide a stable, positive and successful role-model, and the adolescent’s increasing awareness of this instability and their need for an individual identity. Representations support the argument that the growing pressure of individual responsibility for life-choices throughout the nineteenth century also increases the conflict and crisis of the adolescent experience and creates an adolescent desire for autonomy to realise their full potential.
    • ‘Amazed anew’: The Posthuman Dream, the Repetitive System, and Novum Decay in Modern Works of SF

      Stephenson, William; Hay, Jonathan D. (University of Chester, 2018-11-22)
      This study contends that modern texts within the Science Fiction genre can be seen to espouse a posthuman dream, and so to encourage the (post)human reader, viewer, listener, or player to consider the posthuman potentialities of our species’ future in correspondence with their own social present. Modern Science Fiction texts achieve this figurative function through the employment of repetitive systems, through which they prominently depict recognizable elements of the (post)human present within their otherwise radically defamiliarizing posthuman milieu. Therefore, whilst the newnesses within Science Fiction texts have commonly been presumed to be the predominant element of the genre, this study enjoins that the mundane, quotidian or banal elements of the genre are just as vital to its constitution. This radical rereading of the genre is not heedlessly contrarian, but rather comprises an important critical intervention within the fields of Critical Posthumanism and Science Fiction Studies. By arguing that Science Fiction readers phenomenologically experience the nova of the genre decaying in imaginative potency at an intratextual level, this study proposes that the (post)human engagement with the genre is an extension of our species’ penchant to rapidly become entirely habitualized to emerging technologies, despite them originally containing a quality of awe-inspiring novelty. Therefore, the ample ability of readers to become habitualized to the newnesses within the genre exposes the vast imaginative potential of our species, even as it emphasises the absolute reliance of the posthuman future on the (post)human present. As such, through the textual analysis of a range of works published during the last quarter-century, this study asserts than modern works of Science Fiction have a calculated posthuman purpose. To be exact, modern Science Fiction texts invite an understanding that posthuman concerns should be dictated by a number of pressing species-wide concerns of the (post)human present, as opposed to the dictates of any fanciful conception of the future.
    • The relationship between the living and the dead - Contemporary interaction and deposition at mortuary sites as Intangible Cultural Heritage? How this illustrates collective memories and identities in North Wales

      Williams, Howard; Capper, Morn; Bound, Scott L. (University of Chester, 2018-10-10)
      The way in which the living interact with the past in the contemporary is ever-changing. New mortuary practices and forms of commemoration are formed by different groups and cultures, expressing the way in which they perceive death and so life. This interaction can be studied through the contemporary depositions and archaeological evidence left at sites, however, this has seen little coverage heritage and mortuary studies. Given the recent acknowledgement of intangible cultural heritage as an existing element of society within British heritage management these practices that exemplify interaction with ancestral, national or collective memories and identities could be protected or promoted by governing bodies. This thesis therefore aims to highlight such contemporary practices by giving close study to the three mortuary sites that experience this in North Wales, and the forms of intangible heritage that become evident from this. Bryn Celli Ddu passage tomb in Anglesey; Gelert's Grave fictitious dog grave in Snowdonia; and St Winefride's Well site of pilgrimage in Holywell all illustrate these practices, illustrating differing cultural group's formation of memory and identity in the process. By utilising the work on heritage established by Smith on authorised heritage discourses and outstanding universal value, and Houlbrook and Wallis' research on contemporary depositions this thesis expands on the already established, yet young, discourses, providing new information on a particular context within the United Kingdom. This thesis successfully highlights this, illustrates their importance as contemporary expressions and forms of heritage, and briefly sees the function of these within British governance.
    • The effect of beetroot juice on intermittent shuttle running performance involving different numbers of directional changes

      Highton, Jamie; Francis, Ben (University of Chester, 2018-10-01)
      The aim of the study was to assess the effect of dietary nitrate (NO3-) supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to submaximal shuttle running and performance during intermittent shuttle running involving different numbers of directional changes. Eight male recreational team sport athletes (age: 22.6 ± y, body mass: 79.4 ± 4.4 kg, stature: 179.4 ± 5.4 cm, predicted VO2max: 48.5 ± 4,1 ml·kg·-1·min·-1) completed submaximal shuttle running at 60% of their predetermined VO2peak and intermittent shuttle running to exhaustion over a 20 m course or a 10 m course involving more directional changes. Participants performed each protocol twice across four trials; once following the ingestion of NO3 - concentrated beetroot juice 2.5 h before exercise and once following the ingestion of NO3 - depleted beetroot juice. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate and time to exhaustion during intermittent shuttle running were assessed. Increasing the number of directional changes increased the VO2 and HR response to submaximal shuttle running (p < 0.05). However, NO3 - did not affect blood pressure, the physiological responses to submaximal exercise or performance during intermittent shuttle running (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that increasing the number of directional changes during shuttle running elevates the physiological and metabolic demand, but that NO3 - does not impact upon the physiological responses or performance during submaximal and intermittent shuttle running.