• Access and / or conservation? An examination of the issues surrounding the use / re-use of historic buildings and the questions raised more specifically surrounding disabled access, particularly in buildings used in an educational context

      Pardoe, James; Freeman, James W. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2003-10)
      This dissertation proposed to examine the issues surrounding the use/re-use of historic buildings and the questions raised more specifically surrounding disabled access, particularly in buildings used in an educational context. Within this context, the author demonstrated that the re-use of historic sites is dependent on a value being assigned to that property. That value can be a subtle and complex combination of several factors. The author showed that the government has had to create a legislative framework based in practicality to counterbalance these individual notions of value, and that the framework needs to be accountable and flexible. The author described how the relatively recent rise in the concept of social inclusion has manifested itself in the notion of equality for all, and focused on the implications of this cultural change in terms of specific needs access to the historic environment. The author discussed how, in certain circumstances, accessibility issues play a more prominent role than usual. In these cases, accessibility (particularly in a specific needs context) is viewed as essential to the majority of stakeholders and can balance out or even outweigh any conservation considerations. Finally, the author examined three case studies that illustrated specific needs access approaches to historic buildings in an educational context. Of these case studies, two showed a reactive management approach that had resulted in limited specific needs access. The third case study had employed a proactive policy and is a clear example of the benefits of doing so. The author has shown that rather than being mutually exclusive, conservation and specific needs accessibility can and should be viewed as mutually viable options for historic buildings.
    • The acute effects of static-stretching, dynamic exercise and combined warm-up protocols on the speed, agility and muscular power of trained youth rugby union players

      Bailey, Paul (University of Chester, 2008-09-30)
      Several minutes of low intensity aerobic exercise followed by static stretching is typically administered and considered the norm for youth performers. While the active aerobic component of a warm-up has been demonstrated to improve short term, intermediate and long term performance, scientific evidence supporting the performance attributes of warm ups including static stretching are sparse. As a result there has been a growing interest in warm-up procedures that involve dynamic exercise. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine the differing acute effects of a dynamic exercise warm-up with that of a static stretching warm up and a combination warm up (static and dynamic) on the sports specific actions of youth rugby union players; namely speed, agility and muscular power. 20 male youth (age 12-13) rugby union players participated in a Vertical Jump, ‘L run’ and 20 meters sprint after three different warm-up protocols. All sessions were administered in a random order with at least 3 days apart. Before testing, participants performed 5 min of walking/jogging followed by one of the following warm-up protocols: a) six static stretches (2 × 15 s) designed to replicate a typical youth team procedure, or b) ten low to high-intensity dynamic movements (2 × 15 meters), or c) 5 low to high-intensity dynamic movements (2 × 15 meters) interspersed with 5 static stretches for the major muscle groups (2 × 15 s). After each warm-up routine, participants performed the selected tests designed to measure muscular power, speed, and agility. Each subject completed all test with each warm up protocol within 21 days. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that on all tests, except 20 meters sprint , the dynamic exercise warm-up significantly (p <0.017) improved performance over the static stretching and combination protocols. Performance on the 20 meters sprint was significantly improved after the dynamic protocol than after the static but not the combination protocol.The results of this study indicate that pre-event dynamic exercise might be more beneficial than both pre-event static stretching and combination warm up protocols for preparing for performance in youth rugby union players and youth sports of a similar nature.
    • Adjustment to University: Investigating the Effect of Emotional-Cognitive Predictors on Students’ Transition to Higher Education

      Tytherleigh, Michelle; Adams, Stephen (University of Chester, 2017)
      Attending university is acknowledged as a major life transition during which students experience a range of demands and trials, often for the first time and attempting to understand why many fail to thrive is a key area of concern and research. This study used multiple regressions to predict the effect of hope, coping strategies and levels of flourishing on the adjustment to university of 81 first year UK and international students undertaking a variety of courses at the University of Chester’s Foundation School. Findings from this study suggest a significant and positive relationship between students’ active coping strategies and their overall university adjustment, academic adjustment, social adjustment and personal-emotional adjustment though not to students’ attachment to the institution. It was also found that maladaptive coping had a significant negative effect on student adjustment. Hope Agency showed correlations to academic and social adjustment but was subsumed by Coping as a predictor, whilst Hope Pathways and Flourishing showed no significant effect on adjustment.
    • Adolescent girls’ osteoporosis knowledge and understanding with analysis of their current lifestyle choices

      Fallows, Stephen; Savin, Debbie M. K. (University of Chester, 2009-09)
      Adolescent girls especially, need to be aware of the possible onset of osteoporosis in future years so that it’s effects can at least be reduced if not totally prevented. Recently, it has been reported that one out of three adolescent girls had neither heard nor read anything about osteoporosis (Gurney, 2007). The aim of this research was to assess osteoporosis awareness and related behaviors amongst adolescent teenage girls with a view to help prevent osteoporosis occurring in later life. One hundred and forty two female students from a secondary comprehensive school aged 12-16 took part in a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 40 questions and was split into four sections: Section A: An assessment of current osteoporosis knowledge. Section B: An assessment of dietary and physical activity knowledge. Section C: An assessment of current dietary intake for participant. Section D: An assessment of current physical activity for participant. General osteoporosis knowledge, risk factors, prevention, lifestyle behaviors, calcium intake, physical activity, smoking and alcohol intake were central aspects within the questionnaire. The following hypothesis was tested: that adolescent girls have adequate osteoporosis, dietary and physical activity knowledge and understanding (Hi). The null hypothesis (Ho) for this research was therefore given that adolescent girls have inadequate osteoporosis, dietary and physical activity knowledge and understanding. Descriptive statistics, using excel were used to tabulate and analyse the data. Section A focused on osteoporosis knowledge. An average of 31% of questions were answered correctly (mean score of 7 out of 23 correct answers and a standard deviation of 4.4). Section B focused on dietary and physical activity knowledge. An average of 57% of questions were answered correctly (mean score of 10 out of 18 correct answers and a standard deviation of 2.3). Section C focused on an assessment of current dietary intake, most calcium consumption amongst the adolescent girls occurred around one to three times a week which consisted on average of seven to twenty one calcium containing products. The results from section C also showed other products such as cakes, buns, biscuits, pizza, cola and fizzy drinks were consumed amongst adolescent girls most frequently two to three times a month. Overall the results from section C showed that most adolescent girls consume calcium rich products more frequently than the other less healthier portions of food. Section D focused on current physical activity levels, most of the adolescent girls spent two to four times a week participating in physical activity. Adolescent girls mostly tended to spend one to two hours per week and one two hours over the weekend watching the television (a relatively small proportion of their time). One to two hours was spent on homework during the week. Over the weekend one to two hours was also spent on homework. The null hypothesis (Ho) that adolescent girls have inadequate knowledge and understanding of osteoporosis was confirmed as the adolescent girls’ current knowledge of osteoporosis was found to be ‘poor’. Their dietary and physical activity knowledge however, was found to be ‘good’. Overall this research supports the null hypothesis. The average percentage of correct answers in sections A and B was 44% equating to ‘poor’ osteoporosis and related dietary and physical activity knowledge. Adolescent girls were generally unaware of osteoporosis issues and are currently doing moderate exercise and have a moderate consumption of calcium rich food, both of which must be increased to prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis in later life. Targeted education programmes are needed and should be aimed at improving osteoporosis knowledge to affect health beliefs and lifestyle choices in a manner appropriate and appealing to these girls. The National Osteoporosis Society is focusing on secondary education awareness in 2010.
    • Adult reflections on being an ‘only-child’

      Gubi, Peter M.; Fletcher, Caroline (University of Chester, 2014-10)
      This qualitative research project explores the significance that individual counsellors attach to being an ‘only-child’ in terms of their development in childhood, their adult lives and their work as counsellors. The academic literature tends to deal with the advantages and disadvantages of growing up without siblings. Yet, for this researcher, these studies seem to diminish the unique lived experience of individuals and almost to perpetuate stereotypes – even when they seek to challenge existing negative stereotypes by positing new, more favourable stereotypes. Four experienced counsellors were interviewed about the impact that being an onlychild has had – and continues to have – on their lives and were invited to reflect on their own reactions to the stereotypes. My research indicates that the stereotypes bear little relation to the lived-experience of the participants. It also concludes that the process of becoming a counsellor has helped the participants to understand the part that being an only-child has played in the complex picture of their overall development. For all participants, this awareness seems to be an important aspect of their work as counsellors.
    • Aerobic fitness and cardiovascular health profile two years after completion of cardiac rehabilitation

      Buckley, John P.; Padmore, Stephen (University of Chester, 2011-09)
      The aim of this dissertation was to evaluate the impact of a 12 week hospital-based phase III cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme on long-term aerobic fitness and cardiovascular health two years after completion. Nineteen male and five female participants (mean age 65 years + 2 years) who had completed the CR programme, were randomly recruited to the study. 15 (63%) participants had a diagnosis of MI, 4 (17%) had undergone PCI and 5 (21%) had undergone CABG. The study was a repeated measures design. Participants performed three sub-maximal exercise tests (up to 75% HRmax and/or RPE 12/13) on a cycle ergometer to assess aerobic fitness (determined by work rate in watts and METs achieved) at baseline, end of CR and at two year follow-up. Secondary measures for cardiovascular health profile (including body anthropometrics, HADS score) were also examined. A one-way (Repeated Measures) ANOVA and the Friedman test examined differences at baseline, end of the programme and at two year follow-up. Compared to baseline aerobic fitness improved significantly at the end of CR (p = 0.0005) and at two years (p=0.0005). At two years there was no significant difference in work-rate (p=0.41) or METs achieved (p=0.63) compared to levels at the end of CR, indicating that participants maintained their aerobic fitness. The mean work-rate achieved by participants was 56.9 (+4.0) watts at baseline, 78.8 (+5.5) watts at the end of CR, and 76.8 (+5.2) watts at two years. Median METs achieved were 4.3 METs (IQR = 0.9) at baseline, 5.2 METs (IQR = 1.4) at the end of CR and 5.2 METs (IQR = 1.7) at two years. A 12 week CR programme can lead to positive health behaviours, an improvement in participant’s aerobic fitness and aspects of their cardiovascular health profile, which is maintained two years following completion.
    • The agreement on ending the war and restoring peace in Vietnam: The impact of ‘peace with honor’ on the Nixon administration’s foreign policy

      Hughes, Glenn (University of Chester, 2014)
      The aim of this dissertation is to assess the significance of Nixon’s ‘peace with honor’ by evaluating the intentions of the Nixon administration’s foreign policy with regard to ending the Vietnam War. In addition, this dissertation will evaluate how far Nixon’s foreign policies achieved their aims.
    • Airbus international mobility in the U.K.: A case study of how international transfers contribute to global integration

      Page, Steve; Sesmero-Moreno, Enrique (University of ChesterAirbus UK, 2013-06)
      The today’s global market brings with opportunities to many companies to do international business but brings with many challenges in dealing with that complexity; especially in the high competitive global context of the multinationals. To capitalize on those opportunities, multinationals have the imperative need to integrate their operations globally as a source of competitive advantage. Companies have found that people are an essential asset if they want to achieve this integration. As a consequence the job market is experiencing a significant increase of international mobility of the employees. This study will assess the level of understanding about the international employee’s assignment in a global company such Airbus and particularly in one of its subsidiaries: Airbus UK. In exploring the roles and purposes of the expatriates’ activities in Airbus UK, it is the aim of this research to drawn any conclusion about how Airbus strategy to achieve global integration is being effective through the use of international assignments. As some studies indicates more a more multinationals are making use of horizontal mechanism of global coordination such as social architecture, in moving forward beyond the more traditional vertical control over the subsidiaries. This research will be focused on how expatriates are contributing to this social architecture and whether Airbus constitutes a paradigmatic case of the deployment of this capability through the enhancement of the international transfers among its employees. Key findings suggest Airbus is a good example of a multinational firm that consciously uses expatriates to transfer the company culture, common values, beliefs and behavioural norms to different parts of the corporation, in this case Airbus UK. Hence this contributes to the development a more integrated transnational organization. The expatriates have shown that socializing is one of their prime activities in Airbus UK; in doing so they are contributing to build and shared a strong company culture. Therefore it seems that Airbus more than intents to deemphasize national cultures or to replace them, is trying to strength a one global company culture.
    • AKR1C3 inhibition by curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin: an investigation

      Calhoon, Brecken (University of Chester, 2019-10-02)
      Background: Aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) has been shown to be overexpressed in cancers due to its regulatory roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. Curcumin, known to have anti-tumour properties, and its analogues demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) were studied to determine their inhibitory effects on the AKR1C3 enzyme. Methods: AKR1C3 was purified and analysed to determine its protein concentration in transformed Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. Enzyme assays equaling 1 mL contained 2.82 mg/mL AKR1C3, 50 μM of 3 mM NADPH, and varying volumes of potassium phosphate (50 mM, pH 6.5), 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ), and inhibitors were measured at 340 nm. The Vmax, Km, KI, and 2 of AKR1C3 in the presence and absence of inhibitors were determined using a non- linear regression analysis on Fig.P Software. Results: PQ alone found Vmax = 0.47 IU/mg, Km = .435 μM, Ki = 6.29 μM, and 2 = 0.946. Inhibitor potency was BDMC > DMC > curcumin in the presence of 1 μM PQ. Further analysis of BDMC indicated mixed inhibition (Vmax = 0.46 IU/mg, Km = .406 μM, Ki = 1.59 μM, and 2 = 0.970). Further analysis of PQ at higher concentrations found a divergence from Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a decrease in AKR1C3 activity after Vmax was reached. Conclusions: BDMC was the more potent inhibitor of AKR1C3 in transformed E. coli compared to DMC and curcumin. The results suggest mixed inhibition of AKR1C3 in the presence of BDMC. Additional analysis of PQ at higher concentrations saw a loss of Michaelis-Menten kinetics as the activity of AKR1C3 decreased after reaching Vmax. This requires further examination.
    • All Emotions Matter: A Literature-Based Exploration into the Value of Emotions that can have Negative Connotations in Today’s World

      Colam, Veronica (University of Chester, 2019-05)
      This research explores the value of integrating all emotions for well-being, including those that can have negative connotations in today’s world. Contemporary Western culture, possibly influenced by the positive psychology movement, has placed emphasis on the pursuit of happiness. Emotions that may be classified as negative can be rejected, distorted or denied as they may be viewed as undesirable or harmful. This study has the potential to contribute to the understanding of the vital functions that emotions with negative connotations can serve. The basic emotions of anger and sadness are highlighted for closer examination. The study is literature-based using thematic analysis as the qualitative research method. The key findings indicate support for emotions with negative connotations such as anger and sadness making a constructive contribution to the maintenance of healthy, close interpersonal relationships. Influences on how emotions are experienced and expressed are diverse and can include the following: biological, historical, cultural, social and gender role stereotypes. Assertively expressing emotions can be beneficial whereas chronic suppression may be detrimental to health and well-being. The ability to choose flexibly between both expression and suppression of emotions is the most valuable approach, depending on the context, relationship and the individual. The main conclusion drawn from the study is that the experience and expression of emotions that can have negative connotations can contribute to our health and well-being, when used intelligently. This dissertation recommends promoting the potential value of emotions that can have negative connotations through emotional intelligence competencies, emotion regulation and therapy.
    • “All together now”: A sociological investigation into the local deliverance of the Cycling Demonstration Towns Project ‘Cycle Chester’

      Bloyce, Daniel; White, Christopher (University of Chester, 2014-10)
      In 2007 it was announced by Cycling England that Chester was to become a Cycling Demonstration Town (Cycling England, 2010). Rather than the typical English local authority spend on cycling promotion, this meant that Chester would receive a sum of money similar to seemingly pro-cycling cities, such as Amsterdam (DfT, 2008). However there is yet to be an official evaluation of the second round of Cycling Demonstration Towns. This thesis is designed to demonstrate the context of delivering parties in one specific case-study, the Cycling Demonstration Towns Project ‘Cycle Chester’. Fifteen semi-structured interviews explored the views and experiences of various different concerned actors, both inside and outside the core delivery group. The concepts of figurational sociology have been employed to help understand the findings. The principal finding was that the complex figuration in which deliverers were situated meant that the project encountered several unintended outcomes. In addition to this, two key areas were found to have the potential to further complicate the delivery process. Firstly the way in which potential towns and cities were encouraged to apply for funding was found to have large impacts on the project at a later stage. Secondly, and perhaps most importantly, the differing goals of the many groups and individuals who were eventually involved with the project meant that interventions were often ‘watered-down’.
    • ‘Am I not a Man, whose nature is frail, and prone to error?’ An evaluation of Matthew Lewis’s The Monk as a work of tragedy

      Royston-Tonks, Carol A. (University of Chester, 2019)
      This dissertation is an argument for the re-evaluation of Matthew Lewis’s Ambrosio the Monk as a figure of tragedy instead of villainy. By identifying the characteristics of tragedy within the Gothic text, Ambrosio can be shown to fulfil the tenets of the tragic hero as established by Aristotle. Because of this, the reader can experience the tragic response of catharsis because of the pity and sympathy that Ambrosio as a tragic hero can inspire in the reader. For sympathy to be extended to the Gothic, a Romantic sensibility of the primacy of the self, analogous to that of the Renaissance humanist, must be established. The development of this Romantic Sensibility is explored with acknowledgement of the influence upon it by the Renaissance tragedians, thus establishing a chain of literary connections from the ancient tragedy to the Romantic Gothic. By recognising the shared humanity of the Gothic villain and the reader, the sympathy and pity necessary for the tragic response is extended to the Gothic villain which is transformed to a figure of tragedy.
    • ‘Amazed anew’: The Posthuman Dream, the Repetitive System, and Novum Decay in Modern Works of SF

      Stephenson, William; Hay, Jonathan D. (University of Chester, 2018-11-22)
      This study contends that modern texts within the Science Fiction genre can be seen to espouse a posthuman dream, and so to encourage the (post)human reader, viewer, listener, or player to consider the posthuman potentialities of our species’ future in correspondence with their own social present. Modern Science Fiction texts achieve this figurative function through the employment of repetitive systems, through which they prominently depict recognizable elements of the (post)human present within their otherwise radically defamiliarizing posthuman milieu. Therefore, whilst the newnesses within Science Fiction texts have commonly been presumed to be the predominant element of the genre, this study enjoins that the mundane, quotidian or banal elements of the genre are just as vital to its constitution. This radical rereading of the genre is not heedlessly contrarian, but rather comprises an important critical intervention within the fields of Critical Posthumanism and Science Fiction Studies. By arguing that Science Fiction readers phenomenologically experience the nova of the genre decaying in imaginative potency at an intratextual level, this study proposes that the (post)human engagement with the genre is an extension of our species’ penchant to rapidly become entirely habitualized to emerging technologies, despite them originally containing a quality of awe-inspiring novelty. Therefore, the ample ability of readers to become habitualized to the newnesses within the genre exposes the vast imaginative potential of our species, even as it emphasises the absolute reliance of the posthuman future on the (post)human present. As such, through the textual analysis of a range of works published during the last quarter-century, this study asserts than modern works of Science Fiction have a calculated posthuman purpose. To be exact, modern Science Fiction texts invite an understanding that posthuman concerns should be dictated by a number of pressing species-wide concerns of the (post)human present, as opposed to the dictates of any fanciful conception of the future.
    • Analysing the impact of attrition rates in hospitality industry

      Webb, Paul; Mahajan, Sugandha (University of Chester, 2010-11)
      The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact of attrition rates in hospitality industry. The study majorly focuses on the increasing employee turnover, its causes and impact. It looks at various methods to improve employee retention in an organisation. Various human resource theories are used to analyse the employee behaviour in an organisation. Literature review gives a background study to this research. It gives information about the previous study that had been done on employee turnover in hospitality industry. This chapter highlights causes and impact of employee turnover, and employee retention as a measure. In research methodology, researcher has cited all the methods and techniques used for this study. Researcher has also given her choice of research methods and its justification. In the next chapter findings and analysis are provided by using appropriate research methods. Analysis is done using semi-structured interviews, classic HR theories and case study. In conclusion part, researcher has concluded her findings from the research and the responses received. The researcher has also given appropriate recommendations based on the research done. Limitations and challenges faced by the researcher are also cited at the end.
    • Analysis of information systems value and formulation of investment appraisal framework strategy on the context of local government in Wales

      Jones, Stephen (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1998-11)
      Local Authorities have the responsibility of delivering a wide range of services to the general public and have a number of significant problems in many service delivery areas. The Information Technology and Information Systems field is arguably the most challenging. A current information systems issue within the author's sponsoring organisation - a new Welsh Unitary Authority - is getting value from IS investment. The Authority has recently implemented an organisational-wide Office Automation (OA) system. This system was introduced to consolidate and integrate the many departmental systems, working environments and business cultures. Although individual users appeared comfortable with existing departmental paper and technology based OA arrangements, there was no corporate OA environment and it was difficult to communicate and share information. It was perceived that this situation was both inefficient and ineffective. The corporate OA system was therefore introduced to deliver a coherent business information system on a single information technology platform, across a large geographical area and several organisational sites. This initiative had the key objectives to improve information flow, working arrangements and organisational efficiency. This dissertation investigates the rationale for the implementation of an organisational-wide, corporate OA system and investigates and analyses how IS value and benefit was defined and measured. This task has enabled the author to utilise the skills and knowledge gained on the MSc Information Systems degree course. Upon completion of the research dissertation, IS value has have been defined, identified and analysed with regard to a specific case study situation. An IS Investment Appraisal Framework Strategy has been proposed for the Local Authority. This could have a direct benefit to the author's organisation and may assist others in the future.
    • An analysis of Nicolas Berdyaev's philosophy of spirit

      Partridge, Christopher; Tyers, John H. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 2003-10)
      This dissertation is about the philosophy of religion. Its purpose is to find a basis for the articulation of the reality of spirit. It considers Berdyaev's philosophy of spirit, aiming to answer four questions:- 1. How did Berdyaev come to this sense of the priority of spirit? 2. How did he verbalise the reality of spirit in his philosophy? 3. Can he help us to find ways in which we and others might grow in awareness of the spiritual realm? 4. Is his philosophy still of value today? I have surveyed Berdyaev's books as translated into English, and other relevant literature, and have attempted to present his ideas in a logical order. I offer an assessment of his philosophy, and give some account of its application to current issues. I conclude that his existential methods are still relevant today, that any philosophy of spirit must use methods comparable to them, and that we have much to leam from both his emphesis upon the manifestation of spirit in secular life, and his questioning faith. He represents an important but often forgotten strand within Orthodoxy.
    • An analysis of probate inventories from the Runcorn area, 1602-1766

      Dunn, Diana; Howman, Brian (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1999-10)
      This dissertation is a qualitative, rather than quantitative analysis of one hundred and one probate inventories from the Runcorn area, dating from 1602, to 1766. It aims to assess three main themes; the relationship between non-elite people and their physical surroundings; their relationships with each other; and the level and nature of the area's isolation from other regions. Results of work carried out on probate inventories from other parts of the country are used to provide comparisons to conclusions drawn from the local inventories. The opening chapter provides a brief historical background. Evidence from contemporary sources is used to illustrate the local landscape of the period, and broad, perceptions of Runcorn's history are considered and challenged here. In chapter 2, artisans' retention of agricultural interests is addressed, alongside the level of yeomens' diversification into other economic areas than farming. Conclusions drawn here help illustrate the similarities between the economic activity local non-elites', and those elsewhere. Chapter 3 addresses the issues of debt and investment, widows, and low valued inventories. The evidence from these 'exceptional' inventories helps provide a picture of tensions within the local community, as well as a snapshot of the domestic arrangements of some of its poorer members. The final chapter examines the contents and functions of rooms within non-elite homes. Evidence is found which indicates a later evolution in domestic practices, suggesting a certain level of insulation from outside forces. Conversely, ownership patterns of certain goods indicate a significant level of communication with other areas. The appendices contain a list of the inventories used (including testators' occupations and home township), and three charts, showing their distribution; by decade, occupation, and settlement.
    • Analysis of the dietary habits and health and lifestyle characteristics of Trafford Borough residents

      Ellahi, Basma; Charnley, Georgina (University of ChesterUniversity of Chester, 2008)
      Aim: To investigate the health and lifestyle characteristics of a representative sample of Trafford Borough residents (n = 316), using data from a Health and Lifestyle questionnaire, with emphasis on eating behaviour and dietary habits. Design: Previously collected data from a Health and Lifestyle questionnaire designed in conjunction with Trafford PCT was fully analysed to provide a baseline dietary profile of the Trafford residents surveyed, alongside creating an overall picture of current health issues for Trafford as a whole. Results: The responses to the survey have highlighted significant differences in health related behaviours between postcode areas in Trafford. Residents in Firswood and Old Trafford were most likely to consume a poor quality diet and smoke daily (p = 0.001). Respondents from Sale, Brooklands and Ashton-On-Mersey (M33) were least likely to achieve 5-a-day (p = 0.050), and had more residents reporting consuming unsafe amounts of alcohol. Issues such as low levels of physical activity appear to be a health concern for Trafford Borough as a whole. The survey has drawn attention to inequalities between SES and ethnic groups in relation to dietary habits and food security, with Black and Black British residents being most likely to report a lack of money preventing cooking from scratch (p = 0.041). Conclusions: The significant differences in health behaviours between postcode areas in Trafford identify specific areas (M16 and M33) as being priorities for public health initiatives. Lifestyle characteristics such as smoking, alcohol consumption and a sedentary way of life, combined with poor dietary habits correspond with high rates of deaths from heart disease and diabetes incidence reported in the Trafford Health Profile 2007. The survey has shown that over 40 percent of the respondents recognised a need to change their current behaviours and adopt a healthier lifestyle indicating that interventions facilitating those most in need would be well received.
    • An Analysis of the Technical Performance Demands of Elite Female Boxers.

      Thomas, Samuel (University of Chester, 2015-09)
      The aim of this study was to analyse the technical performance demands of elite level female boxing across four different bout outcomes (unanimous win, split win, split loss and unanimous loss). 37 bouts (74 performances) were analysed from the quarter-finals, semi-finals and finals of the 2014 women's world championships. The analysis was conducted using key performance indicators (KPI's), including total punches, types of punch, punch outcome, type of defence and type of exchange. Unanimous winners threw the most punches overall and also in each round independently. Unanimous win and split win were found to throw significantly more very successful punches and successful three punch combinations than both split loss and unanimous loss. The number of exchanges initiated was highest for unanimous win, followed by split win, with unanimous loss initiating the least number of attacks. Although there was no significant difference between unanimous win and split win, the main differences were found to be very successful punches, successful punches, efficiency and individual attacks. The differences between most KPI's was smaller between split win and split loss than unanimous win and unanimous loss. Split winners initiated more exchanges in order to dominate bouts. This study provides a detailed analysis of KPI's across four different bout outcomes (unanimous win, split win, split loss and unanimous loss) and can be used by coaches and athletes in order to assist in the planning of training programmes and informing tactics.
    • Analytical and numerical solution methods for integral equations using Maple symbolic algebraic package

      Ford, Neville J.; Edwards, John T.; Little, Alexander J. M. (University of Liverpool (Chester College of Higher Education), 1998-12)