Recent Submissions

  • The challenge of relational referents in early word extensions: Evidence from noun-noun compounds.

    Snape, Simon; Krott, Andrea (2021-02-15)
    Young children struggle more with mapping novel words onto relational referents (e.g., verbs) compared to non-relational referents (e.g., nouns). We present further evidence for this notion by investigating children's extensions of noun-noun compounds, which map onto combinations of non-relational referents, i.e., objects (e.g., baby and bottle for baby bottle), and relations (e.g., a bottle FOR babies). We tested two- to five-year-olds' and adults' generalisations of novel compounds composed of novel (e.g., kig donka) or familiar (e.g., star hat) nouns that were combined by one of two relations (e.g., donka that has a kig attached (=attachment relation) versus donka that stores a kig (=function relation)). Participants chose between a relational (shared relation) and a non-relational (same colour) match. Results showed a developmental shift from encoding non-relational aspects (colour) towards relations of compound referents, supporting the challenge of relational word referents. Also, attachment relations were more frequently encoded than function relations.
  • Evidence of a disability paradox in patient‐reported outcomes in haemophilia

    O’Hara, Jamie; Martin, Antony P.; Nugent, Diane; Witkop, Michelle; orcid: 0000-0003-0758-286X; Buckner, Tyler W.; Skinner, Mark W.; orcid: 0000-0002-0934-0680; O’Mahony, Brian; Mulhern, Brendan; Morgan, George; orcid: 0000-0003-2014-3415; Li, Nanxin; et al. (Wiley, 2021-02-17)
  • Adult lifetime cost of hemophilia B management in the US: Payer and societal perspectives from a decision analytic model

    Li, Nanxin; Sawyer, Eileen K.; Maruszczyk, Konrad; orcid: 0000-0002-0173-5020; Guzauskas, Greg; orcid: 0000-0002-9095-1672; Slomka, Marta T.; Burke, Tom; Martin, Antony P.; O’Hara, Jamie; Stevenson, Matt; Recht, Michael (Informa UK Limited, 2021-02-16)
  • Attachment theory: developments, debates and recent applications in social work, social care and education

    Harlow, Elizabeth; orcid: 0000-0001-5031-7485 (Informa UK Limited, 2019-12-16)
  • Dynamics of Shadow System of a Singular Gierer–Meinhardt System on an Evolving Domain

    Kavallaris, Nikos I.; orcid: 0000-0002-9743-8636; email: n.kavallaris@chester.ac.uk; Barreira, Raquel; Madzvamuse, Anotida; orcid: 0000-0002-9511-8903 (Springer US, 2020-12-18)
    Abstract: The main purpose of the current paper is to contribute towards the comprehension of the dynamics of the shadow system of a singular Gierer–Meinhardt model on an isotropically evolving domain. In the case where the inhibitor’s response to the activator’s growth is rather weak, then the shadow system of the Gierer–Meinhardt model is reduced to a single though non-local equation whose dynamics is thoroughly investigated throughout the manuscript. The main focus is on the derivation of blow-up results for this non-local equation, which can be interpreted as instability patterns of the shadow system. In particular, a diffusion-driven instability (DDI), or Turing instability, in the neighbourhood of a constant stationary solution, which then is destabilised via diffusion-driven blow-up, is observed. The latter indicates the formation of some unstable patterns, whilst some stability results of global-in-time solutions towards non-constant steady states guarantee the occurrence of some stable patterns. Most of the theoretical results are verified numerically, whilst the numerical approach is also used to exhibit the dynamics of the shadow system when analytical methods fail.
  • Quantifying the impact of tissue metabolism on solute transport in feto-placental microvascular networks

    Erlich, Alexander; orcid: 0000-0002-2294-1894; Nye, Gareth A.; orcid: 0000-0003-4508-0406; Brownbill, Paul; orcid: 0000-0002-8328-7072; Jensen, Oliver E.; orcid: 0000-0003-0172-6578; Chernyavsky, Igor L.; orcid: 0000-0003-0284-9318 (The Royal Society, 2019-08-16)
    The primary exchange units in the human placenta are terminal villi, in which fetal capillary networks are surrounded by a thin layer of villous tissue, separating fetal from maternal blood. To understand how the complex spatial structure of villi influences their function, we use an image-based theoretical model to study the effect of tissue metabolism on the transport of solutes from maternal blood into the fetal circulation. For solute that is taken up under first-order kinetics, we show that the transition between flow-limited and diffusion-limited transport depends on two new dimensionless parameters defined in terms of key geometric quantities, with strong solute uptake promoting flow-limited transport conditions. We present a simple algebraic approximation for solute uptake rate as a function of flow conditions, metabolic rate and villous geometry. For oxygen, accounting for nonlinear kinetics using physiological parameter values, our model predicts that villous metabolism does not significantly impact oxygen transfer to fetal blood, although the partitioning of fluxes between the villous tissue and the capillary network depends strongly on the flow regime.
  • In vitro and computational modelling of drug delivery across the outer blood–retinal barrier

    Davies, Alys E.; orcid: 0000-0002-3489-0182; Williams, Rachel L.; Lugano, Gaia; Pop, Serban R.; Kearns, Victoria R.; orcid: 0000-0003-1426-6048 (The Royal Society, 2020-02-14)
    The ability to produce rapid, cost-effective and human-relevant data has the potential to accelerate the development of new drug delivery systems. Intraocular drug delivery is an area undergoing rapid expansion, due to the increase in sight-threatening diseases linked to increasing age and lifestyle factors. The outer blood–retinal barrier (OBRB) is important in this area of drug delivery, as it separates the eye from the systemic blood flow. This study reports the development of complementary in vitro and in silico models to study drug transport from silicone oil across the OBRB. Monolayer cultures of a human retinal pigmented epithelium cell line, ARPE-19, were added to chambers and exposed to a controlled flow to simulate drug clearance across the OBRB. Movement of dextran molecules and release of ibuprofen from silicone oil in this model were measured. Corresponding simulations were developed using COMSOL Multiphysics computational fluid dynamics software and validated using independent in vitro datasets. Computational simulations were able to predict dextran movement and ibuprofen release, with all of the features of the experimental release profiles being observed in the simulated data. Simulated values for peak concentrations of permeated dextran and ibuprofen released from silicone oil were within 18% of the in vitro results. This model could be used as a predictive tool for drug transport across this important tissue.
  • The challenge of hospitality: marking remembrance as an Anglican in a multifaith parish

    Lees-Smith, Anthony; orcid: 0000-0002-4322-3998 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-02-14)
  • Event-related and readiness potentials when preparing to approach and avoid alcohol cues following cue avoidance training in heavy drinkers

    Di Lemma, Lisa C. G.; email: l.dilemma@chester.ac.uk; Stancak, Andrej; Soto, Vicente; Fallon, Nick; Field, Matt (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020-02-26)
    Abstract: Rationale: Cue avoidance training (CAT) reduces alcohol consumption in the laboratory. However, the neural mechanisms that underlie the effects of this intervention are poorly understood. Objectives: The present study investigated the effects of a single session of CAT on event-related and readiness potentials during preparation of approach and avoidance movements to alcohol cues. Methods: Heavy drinking young adults (N = 60) were randomly assigned to complete either CAT or control training. After training, we recorded participants’ event-related and motor readiness potentials as they were preparing to respond. Results: In the CAT group, N200 amplitude was higher when preparing to approach rather than avoid alcohol pictures. In the control group, N200 amplitudes did not differ for approach and avoidance to alcohol pictures. Regarding the late positive potential (LPP), in the CAT group, the negativity of this was blunted when preparing to avoid alcohol pictures relative to when preparing to avoid control pictures. In the control group, the negativity of the LPP was blunted when preparing to approach alcohol pictures relative to when preparing to approach control pictures. There were no effects on motor readiness potentials. Behavioural effects indicated short-lived effects of training on reaction times during the training block that did not persist when participants were given time to prepare their motor response before executing it during the EEG testing block. Conclusions: After a single session of CAT, the enhanced N200 when approaching alcohol cues may indicate the engagement of executive control to overcome the associations learned during training. These findings clarify the neural mechanisms that may underlie the effects of CAT on drinking behaviour.
  • The Scarecrow Christ

    Middleton, Paul (Amsterdam University Press, 2020-01-31)
    Paul Middleton deals with the contested homosexual martyr Matthew Shepard. Matthew Shepard, a gay twenty-one year old political science student at the University of Wyoming, was robbed and brutally beaten by two other men on the night of Tuesday, 6 October 1998. The men tied him to a fence after the attack, while he was bleeding profusely in freezing temperatures. He died a few days later, on 12 October 1998, and was called a martyr in Time Magazine, just a week after his death. Middleton examines the popular martyr-making process in respect of Matthew Shepard, arguing that both the making of the martyr and the reaction it provoked reflect American ‘culture wars’, because martyrology is conflict literature, foremost about the conflict between the story-tellers and their opponents. Ironically, both LGBT activists and right-wing religious groups have in some ways sought to undermine Shepard’s martyr status by focusing on his life rather than his death. Such efforts, as Middleton argues, had a limited effect because in martyrologies any interest in the lives of their heroes is incidental, merely setting up the scene for a significant death.
  • Michael Gilmour, Animals in the Writings of C.S. Lewis

    Clough, David (Edinburgh University Press, 2019-10)
  • THEOLOGY AND THE PUBLIC SQUARE: MAPPING THE FIELD

    Graham, Elaine (Liverpool University Press, 2020-01)
  • Limb preference and personality in donkeys (Equus asinus)

    Díaz, Sergio; orcid: 0000-0002-3070-0097; Murray, Lindsay; orcid: 0000-0002-7810-9546; Rodway, Paul; orcid: 0000-0002-7667-6782 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-02-05)
  • Two high-order time discretization schemes for subdiffusion problems with nonsmooth data

    Wang, Yanyong; Yan, Yubin; Yang, Yan (Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2020-11-13)
    Abstract Two new high-order time discretization schemes for solving subdiffusion problems with nonsmooth data are developed based on the corrections of the existing time discretization schemes in literature. Without the corrections, the schemes have only a first order of accuracy for both smooth and nonsmooth data. After correcting some starting steps and some weights of the schemes, the optimal convergence orders O(k 3–α ) and O(k 4–α ) with 0 < α < 1 can be restored for any fixed time t for both smooth and nonsmooth data, respectively. The error estimates for these two new high-order schemes are proved by using Laplace transform method for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous problem. Numerical examples are given to show that the numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.
  • The Gravitational Pull of Identity: Professional Growth in Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychologists

    Tod, David; orcid: 0000-0003-1084-6686; McEwan, Hayley; orcid: 0000-0001-5316-8446; Chandler, Charlotte; orcid: 0000-0003-3324-8259; Eubank, Martin; orcid: 0000-0002-9696-0537; Lafferty, Moira; orcid: 0000-0002-3877-5800 (Informa UK Limited, 2020-10-07)
  • Popular geopolitics ‘beyond the screen’: Bringing Modern Warfare to the city

    Bos, Daniel (SAGE Publications, 2020-07-16)
    Popular culture – in this case military-themed videogames – has been argued to mould and shape popular understandings of the geopolitics of the ‘war on terror’. To date, most attention has been focused on the geopolitical representations of a ‘final’ popular cultural text or object. Less attention has been paid to how popular understandings of geopolitics and military violence have been constructed and commodified prior to, and ‘beyond the screen’. Empirically, the paper examines the marketing campaign of Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3. Through the use of experiential marketing, I show how the game’s launch night incorporated spectacular displays, performances and consumer interactions to sell the pleasures of virtual war by drawing on geopolitical fears of terrorism and military violence within major Western cities. Firstly, I demonstrate how marketing engaged with and transformed urban spaces extending the popular geopolitics of virtual war. Secondly, the paper reveals how experiential marketing targeted and encouraged connections with and between attendees’ bodies. Thirdly, I demonstrate how such events promote geopolitical encounters which extend beyond the temporal and the spatial confines of the marketing event itself. Ultimately, the paper reveals how urban fears surrounding the global ‘war on terror’ were employed to sell the pleasures and geopolitics of virtual war.

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