• Stem cell therapy and diabetic erectile dysfunction: A critical review.

      Pakpahan, Cennikon; Ibrahim, Raditya; William, William; Faizah, Zakiyatul; Juniastuti, Juniastuti; Lusida, Maria I; Oceandy, Delvac; email: delvac.oceandy@manchester.ac.uk (2021-10-26)
      Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been identified as one of the most frequent chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). The prevalence of ED is estimated to be about 67.4% in all DM cases worldwide. The pathophysiological process leading to ED involves endothelial, neurological, hormonal, and psychological factors. In DM, endothelial and neurological factors play a crucial role. Damages in the blood vessels and erectile tissue due to insulin resistance are the hallmark of ED in DM. The current treatments for ED include phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and penile prosthesis surgery. However, these treatments are limited in terms of just relieving the symptoms, but not resolving the cause of the problem. The use of stem cells for treating ED is currently being studied mostly in experimental animals. The stem cells used are derived from adipose tissue, bone, or human urine. Most of the studies observed an improvement in erectile quality in the experimental animals as well as an improvement in erectile tissue. However, research on stem cell therapy for ED in humans remains to be limited. Nevertheless, significant findings from studies using animal models indicate a potential use of stem cells in the treatment of ED. [Abstract copyright: ©The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.]