• Strategies to Improve Antimicrobial Utilization with a Special Focus on Developing Countries

      Godman, Brian; orcid: 0000-0001-6539-6972; email: brian.godman@strath.ac.uk; Egwuenu, Abiodun; orcid: 0000-0002-9369-4771; email: abiodun.egwuenu@ncdc.gov.ng; Haque, Mainul; orcid: 0000-0002-6124-7993; email: runurono@gmail.com; Malande, Oliver Ombeva; email: ombevaom@gmail.com; Schellack, Natalie; email: natalie.schellack@up.ac.za; Kumar, Santosh; orcid: 0000-0002-5117-7872; email: drsantoshkumar2004@gmail.com; Saleem, Zikria; orcid: 0000-0003-3202-6347; email: xikria@gmail.com; Sneddon, Jacqueline; email: jacqueline.sneddon@nhs.scot; Hoxha, Iris; email: iris.hoxha@umed.edu.al; Islam, Salequl; email: salequl@juniv.edu; et al. (MDPI, 2021-06-07)
      Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a high priority across countries as it increases morbidity, mortality and costs. Concerns with AMR have resulted in multiple initiatives internationally, nationally and regionally to enhance appropriate antibiotic utilization across sectors to reduce AMR, with the overuse of antibiotics exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Effectively tackling AMR is crucial for all countries. Principally a narrative review of ongoing activities across sectors was undertaken to improve antimicrobial use and address issues with vaccines including COVID-19. Point prevalence surveys have been successful in hospitals to identify areas for quality improvement programs, principally centering on antimicrobial stewardship programs. These include reducing prolonged antibiotic use to prevent surgical site infections. Multiple activities centering on education have been successful in reducing inappropriate prescribing and dispensing of antimicrobials in ambulatory care for essentially viral infections such as acute respiratory infections. It is imperative to develop new quality indicators for ambulatory care given current concerns, and instigate programs with clear public health messaging to reduce misinformation, essential for pandemics. Regular access to effective treatments is needed to reduce resistance to treatments for HIV, malaria and tuberculosis. Key stakeholder groups can instigate multiple initiatives to reduce AMR. These need to be followed up.