• High order algorithms for numerical solution of fractional differential equations

      Asl, Mohammad Shahbazi; email: mshahbazia@yahoo.com; Javidi, Mohammad; Yan, yubin (Springer International Publishing, 2021-02-17)
      Abstract: In this paper, two novel high order numerical algorithms are proposed for solving fractional differential equations where the fractional derivative is considered in the Caputo sense. The total domain is discretized into a set of small subdomains and then the unknown functions are approximated using the piecewise Lagrange interpolation polynomial of degree three and degree four. The detailed error analysis is presented, and it is analytically proven that the proposed algorithms are of orders 4 and 5. The stability of the algorithms is rigorously established and the stability region is also achieved. Numerical examples are provided to check the theoretical results and illustrate the efficiency and applicability of the novel algorithms.
    • Evidence of a disability paradox in patient‐reported outcomes in haemophilia

      O’Hara, Jamie; Martin, Antony P.; Nugent, Diane; Witkop, Michelle; orcid: 0000-0003-0758-286X; Buckner, Tyler W.; Skinner, Mark W.; orcid: 0000-0002-0934-0680; O’Mahony, Brian; Mulhern, Brendan; Morgan, George; orcid: 0000-0003-2014-3415; Li, Nanxin; et al. (Wiley, 2021-02-17)
    • Adult lifetime cost of hemophilia B management in the US: Payer and societal perspectives from a decision analytic model

      Li, Nanxin; Sawyer, Eileen K.; Maruszczyk, Konrad; orcid: 0000-0002-0173-5020; Guzauskas, Greg; orcid: 0000-0002-9095-1672; Slomka, Marta T.; Burke, Tom; Martin, Antony P.; O’Hara, Jamie; Stevenson, Matt; Recht, Michael (Informa UK Limited, 2021-02-16)
    • Adult lifetime cost of hemophilia B management in the US: Payer and societal perspectives from a decision analytic model.

      Li, Nanxin; Sawyer, Eileen K; Maruszczyk, Konrad; orcid: 0000-0002-0173-5020; Guzauskas, Greg; orcid: 0000-0002-9095-1672; Slomka, Marta T; Burke, Tom; Martin, Antony P; O'Hara, Jamie; Stevenson, Matt; Recht, Michael (2021-02-16)
      Hemophilia B (HB) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by bleeding-related complications which are managed by prophylactic or post-bleeding event ("on-demand") replacement of clotting factor IX (FIX). The standard of care for severe HB is life-long prophylaxis with standard half-life (SHL) or extended half-life (EHL) products given every 2-3 or 7-14 days, respectively. FIX treatment costs in the US have been investigated, but the lifetime costs of HB treatment have not been well characterized, particularly related to the impact of joint health deterioration and associated health resource utilization. We developed a decision-analytic model to explore outcomes, costs and underlying cost drivers associated with FIX treatment options over the lifetime of an adult with severe or moderately severe HB. With participation from clinicians, health technology assessment specialists and patient advocates, a Markov model was constructed to estimate bleeding events and costs associated with health states including 'bleed into joint', 'bleed not into joint', 'no bleed' and death. Sub-models of joint health were based on 0, 1, or ≥2 areas of chronic joint damage. US third-party payer and societal perspectives were considered with a lifetime horizon; sensitivity analyses tested the robustness of primary findings. Total adult lifetime costs per patient with severe and moderately severe HB were $21,086,607 for SHL FIX prophylaxis, $22,987,483 for EHL FIX prophylaxis, and $20,971,826 for on-demand FIX treatment. For FIX prophylaxis, the cost of FIX treatment account for >90% of the total HB treatment costs. This decision analytic model demonstrated significant economic burden associated with the current HB treatment paradigm.
    • The challenge of relational referents in early word extensions: Evidence from noun-noun compounds.

      Snape, Simon; Krott, Andrea (2021-02-15)
      Young children struggle more with mapping novel words onto relational referents (e.g., verbs) compared to non-relational referents (e.g., nouns). We present further evidence for this notion by investigating children's extensions of noun-noun compounds, which map onto combinations of non-relational referents, i.e., objects (e.g., baby and bottle for baby bottle), and relations (e.g., a bottle FOR babies). We tested two- to five-year-olds' and adults' generalisations of novel compounds composed of novel (e.g., kig donka) or familiar (e.g., star hat) nouns that were combined by one of two relations (e.g., donka that has a kig attached (=attachment relation) versus donka that stores a kig (=function relation)). Participants chose between a relational (shared relation) and a non-relational (same colour) match. Results showed a developmental shift from encoding non-relational aspects (colour) towards relations of compound referents, supporting the challenge of relational word referents. Also, attachment relations were more frequently encoded than function relations.
    • The challenge of hospitality: marking remembrance as an Anglican in a multifaith parish

      Lees-Smith, Anthony; orcid: 0000-0002-4322-3998 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-02-14)
    • Limb preference and personality in donkeys (Equus asinus)

      Díaz, Sergio; orcid: 0000-0002-3070-0097; Murray, Lindsay; orcid: 0000-0002-7810-9546; Rodway, Paul; orcid: 0000-0002-7667-6782 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-02-05)
    • Do stress and anxiety in early pregnancy affect the progress of labor: Evidence from the Wirral Child Health and Development Study

      Slade, Pauline; orcid: 0000-0001-5877-2706; Sheen, Kayleigh; Weeks, Andrew; Wray, Susan; De Pascalis, Leonardo; Lunt, Karen; Bedwell, Carol; Thompson, Belinda; Hill, Johnathan; Sharp, Helen (Wiley, 2021-02-05)
    • Do stress and anxiety in early pregnancy affect the progress of labor: Evidence from the Wirral Child Health and Development Study.

      Slade, Pauline; orcid: 0000-0001-5877-2706; Sheen, Kayleigh; Weeks, Andrew; Wray, Susan; De Pascalis, Leonardo; Lunt, Karen; Bedwell, Carol; Thompson, Belinda; Hill, Johnathan; Sharp, Helen (2021-02-05)
      Despite widespread belief that anxiety causes longer labor, evidence of association is inconsistent. Data gathered as part of a prospective epidemiological longitudinal study were used to investigate associations between antenatal anxiety and pregnancy-specific stress, and labor progression was assessed by duration and use of augmentation. Pregnant primiparous women completed measures for anxiety and pregnancy-specific stress at 20 weeks' gestation (n = 1145). Birth outcome data were extracted from medical records. Regression analyses and a path analysis assessed associations between antenatal anxiety and pregnancy-specific stress, and indices of labor progression (labor duration and augmentation). Anxiety/pregnancy-specific stress were not directly associated with duration of stage 1 labor (HIGH/LOW anxiety: mean difference = 13.94 minutes, SD = 20.66, 95% CI -26.60 to 54.49, P < .50)/(HIGH/LOW pregnancy-specific stress: mean difference = 12.05 minutes, SD = 16.09, 95% CI -19.52 to 43.63, P < .45). However, anxiety/pregnancy-specific stress were associated with epidural use (HIGH/LOW anxiety: 39% vs 31%, P < .042; HIGH/LOW pregnancy-specific stress: 38% vs 29%, P < .001), which was itself associated with longer labor (mean difference: 158.79 minutes, SD = 16.76, 95% CI 125.89-191.68, P < .001). Anxiety and pregnancy-specific stress were associated with increased likelihood of augmentation but these associations were nonsignificant after accounting for epidural, which was itself highly associated with augmentation. However, path analysis indicated an indirect effect linking pregnancy-specific stress, but not general anxiety, to labor duration and augmentation: elevated pregnancy-specific stress led to greater use of epidural, which was linked to both increased rates of augmentation, and increased labor duration. Contrary to general belief, general anxiety and specific pregnancy stress were not directly linked to longer duration of stage one labor. However specific pregnancy stress was associated with epidural use, which in turn was significantly associated with risk of augmentation, and longer stage one labor. Identification of pregnancy-specific stress could help to identify women for whom psychological interventions could improve birth experience. [Abstract copyright: © 2020 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).]
    • Evaluating serious stress in military veterans, their carers and families: a protocol.

      Finnegan, Alan; orcid: 0000-0002-2189-4926; email: a.finnegan@chester.ac.uk; Di Lemma, L; Mcghee, S; orcid: 0000-0002-2006-8403; Watson, R (2021-02-05)
      In 2018, the Armed Forces Covenant Fund Trust (ACFT) allocated approximately £4M to seven UK projects to address serious stress in military veterans, their carers and families. These programmes commenced between May and October 2019 and will conclude in August 2021.This paper outlines the protocol for the evaluation of the Serious Stress programme and the novel support provided to grant holders. Entry into the programmes was through multiple routes, including self-referrals with an anticipated sample of approximately 2000 participants. A common outcomes framework was designed to measure outcomes. Grant holders accepted ownership for data collection and quality and were supported through accompanying guidance material.Veterans were often reluctant to seek support, and the anonymous and confidential nature of the evaluation plus the study team's military background helped address this. Participants' voices were a key part in developing the protocol, leading to results to inform policy and highlight success, efficiency and cost effectiveness, and providing markers for future development.The study provided a reservoir of information. Interim reports indicated compliance with performance indicators and provided timely evidence. Shared learning provided grant holders with an indication of what was helping the beneficiaries and what needed to be improved. The combination of all data sets provided the ACFT with a resource to demonstrate success and insight into projects where improvement was required, and indicators of how to redress these problems. The study protocol provided a platform for building lasting partnerships. [Abstract copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.]
    • Limb preference and personality in donkeys (

      Díaz, Sergio; orcid: 0000-0002-3070-0097; Murray, Lindsay; orcid: 0000-0002-7810-9546; Rodway, Paul; orcid: 0000-0002-7667-6782 (2021-02-05)
      Interhemispheric laterality has often been linked to different behavioural styles. This study investigates the link between limb preference and personality in donkeys. The sample consisted of 47 donkeys ( ), 30 males and 17 females. Limb preference was determined using observation of the leading limb in a motionless posture and personality was measured using the Donkey Temperament Questionnaire (French, J. M. (1993). Assessment of donkey temperament and the influence of home environment. , (2), 249-257. doi:10.1016/0168-1591(93)90014-G) completed by the donkeys' keepers. A Principal Component Analysis obtained two components: Agreeableness and Extraversion. Age showed a positive relationship with Agreeableness, echoing trends in humans Donkeys did not show a population-level preference towards either side. Limb preference significantly predicted the trait : donkeys with a preference to keep the right foot forward when motionless were harder to handle. This study presents the first investigation into limb preference and personality in donkeys, although more research is needed to clarify whether there is a population-level limb preference bias in donkeys, and the relationship between limb preference and Agreeableness.
    • Limb preference and personality in donkeys (Equus asinus)

      Díaz, Sergio; orcid: 0000-0002-3070-0097; Murray, Lindsay; orcid: 0000-0002-7810-9546; Rodway, Paul; orcid: 0000-0002-7667-6782 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-02-05)
    • Improved social functioning following social recovery therapy in first episode psychosis: Do social cognition and neurocognition change following therapy, and do they predict treatment response?

      Griffiths, Siân Lowri; email: s.l.griffiths@bham.ac.uk; Wood, Stephen J; Fowler, David; Freemantle, Nick; Hodgekins, Joanne; Jones, Peter B; Singh, Swaran; Sharma, Vimal; Birchwood, Max (2021-01-21)
      There is a need to develop and refine psychosocial interventions to improve functioning in First Episode Psychosis (FEP). Social cognition and neurocognition are closely linked to functioning in psychosis; examinations of cognition pre- and post- psychosocial intervention may provide insights into the mechanisms of these interventions, and identify which individuals are most likely to benefit. Cognition was assessed within a multi-site trial of Social Recovery Therapy (SRT) for individuals with FEP experiencing poor functioning (<30 h weekly structured activity). Fifty-nine participants were randomly allocated to the therapy group (SRT + Early intervention), and 64 were allocated to treatment as usual group (TAU - early intervention care). Social cognition and neurocognition were assessed at baseline and 9 months; assessors were blind to group allocation. It was hypothesized that social cognition would improve following therapy, and those with better social cognition prior to therapy would benefit the most from SRT. There was no significant impact of SRT on individual neurocognitive or social cognitive variables, however, joint models addressing patterns of missingness demonstrate improvement across a number of cognitive outcomes following SRT. Further, regression analyses showed those who had better social cognition at baseline were most likely to benefit from the therapy (ß = 0.350; 95% CI = 0.830 to 8.891; p = .019). It is not clear if SRT impacts on social cognitive or neurocognitive function, however, SRT may be beneficial in those with better social cognition at baseline. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.]
    • Blue and grey urban water footprints through citizens’ perception and time series analysis of Brazilian dynamics

      Souza, Felipe Augusto Arguello; orcid: 0000-0002-2753-9896; Bhattacharya-Mis, Namrata; orcid: 0000-0003-4967-8325; Restrepo-Estrada, Camilo; Gober, Patricia; Taffarello, Denise; Tundisi, José Galizia; Mendiondo, Eduardo Mario; orcid: 0000-0003-2319-2773 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-01-20)
    • Real-world evidence on Kovaltry (81-8973) in children with moderate or severe hemophilia A in Europe: a nested cohort analysis

      O’Hara, Jamie; Hirst, Ceri; orcid: 0000-0001-9094-2437; email: ceri.hirst@bayer.com; Cabre Marquez, Jose Francisco; Burke, Tom (BioMed Central, 2021-01-15)
      Abstract: Background: Untreated hemophilia A patients may experience recurrent bleeding events leading to debilitating joint damages. While RCT and pharmacokinetic data support the value of Kovaltry [an unmodified full-length recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) product], real world evidence in children is lacking. This report describes a descriptive and multivariate analysis of the effectiveness of Kovaltry in children with hemophilia A in the real-world setting, using data from medical chart abstraction and cross-sectional surveys of physicians, patients, and caregivers. Results: Male patients aged < 18 years with moderate or severe hemophilia A, residing in five European countries and treated with FVIII were studied. The co-primary endpoints were the annualized bleeding rate (ABR) and the annual FVIII utilization rate. Twenty nine patients treated with Kovaltry were included, of whom 93% had severe disease and 75% were on continuous prophylactic treatment. The mean ABR was 2.66 ± 2.06, with rates decreasing with age. The children received on average 2.45 infusions per week, consistent across age groups (median 3; range 1–3). There were no reports of inhibitor development or adverse events in the study (AEs), and all patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the treatment. An exploratory multivariate analysis suggests no significant difference in ABR or units utilized between Kovaltry and some extended half life products in children with severe hemophilia A, though characteristics of these patient cohorts were markedly different. Conclusion: This analysis demonstrates the effectiveness and safety of Kovaltry in a pan-European pediatric population with severe hemophilia A.
    • COVID-19 presenting as intussusception in infants: A case report with literature review

      Athamnah, Mohammad N.; Masade, Salim; Hamdallah, Hanady; orcid: 0000-0001-6314-0236; Banikhaled, Nasser; Shatnawi, Wafa; Elmughrabi, Marwa; Al Azzam, Hussein S.O. (Elsevier, 2021-01-12)
      The novel Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first presented in Wuhan, China. The virus was able to spread throughout the world, causing a global health crisis. The virus spread widely in Jordan after a wedding party held in northern Jordan. In most cases of COVID-19 infection, respiratory symptoms are predominant. However, in rare cases the disease may present with non-respiratory symptoms. The presentation of COVID-19 as a case of intussusception in children is a strange and rare phenomenon. We present here a case of a two-and-a-half month old male baby who was brought to hospital due to fever, frequent vomiting, dehydration and blood in stool. He was diagnosed as intussusception. The child was tested for corona due to the large societal spread of the virus and because he was near his mother, who was suffering from symptoms similar to corona or seasonal flu (she did not conduct a corona test). Patient was treated without surgery and recovered quickly. The COVID-19 infection was without respiratory symptoms, and there was no need for the child to remain in hospital after treatment of intussusception. The relationship between viruses, mesenteric lymphoid hyperplasia, and intussusception is a confirmed relation. ACE2 is the key receptor required for SARA-COV-2 to enter the host cells. ACE2 has been also found in the brush border of the intestinal mucosa, as well as it is a key inflammatory regulator in the intestine. This may suggest that SARSA-COV-2 could invade the respiratory tract as well as gastrointestinal tract or both. Few case reports documented the presentation of COVID-19 as intussusception in children. In the light of the wide-spread of corona virus, performing COVID-19 tests for children with intussusception can help linking the two entities. Development of gastrointestinal symptoms in COVID-19 positive children should raise concern about the development of intussusception.
    • Comparison of Performance of Alternative Post Combustion Carbon Capture Processes for a Biogas Fueled Micro Gas Turbine

      Font-Palma, Carolina; Lychnos, George; Nikpey Somehsaraei, Homam; Willson, Paul; Assadi, Mohsen (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2021-01-11)
      Abstract The urgent need to decrease greenhouse gases (GHG) has prompted countries such as the UK and Norway to commit to net zero emissions by 2050 and 2030, respectively. One of the sectors contributing to GHG emissions is agriculture, by approximately 10% in the EU in 2017. GHG reductions in the production side should involve avoidance at source, reduction of emissions and/or removal of those emissions, with the potential for negative emissions by carbon capture. This paper focuses on the utilisation of agricultural waste that can be converted into biogas, such as livestock and crops residues which represent around 37% of GHG emissions by agriculture in the EU. The biogas can be used to produce electricity and heat in a micro gas turbine (MGT). Then, the exhaust gases can be sent to a carbon capture plant. This offers the potential for integration of waste into energy for in-house use in farms and fosters a circular-bioeconomy, where the captured CO2 could be used in greenhouses to grow vegetables. This could even allow the integration of other renewable technologies, since the MGT offers flexible operation for rapid start-up and shut down or intermittency of other technologies such as solar or wind. Current carbon capture processes are very costly at the smaller scales typical of remote communities. The alternative A3C (advanced cryogenic carbon capture) process is much more economical at smaller scales. The A3C separates CO2 from process gas that flows counter-currently with a cold moving bed, where the CO2 desublimes on the surface of bed material as a thin layer of frost. This allows enhanced heat transfer and avoids heavy build-up of frost that reduces severely the heat transfer. The phase change separation process employed by A3C and the large thermal inertia of the separation medium gives good flexibility of capture for load changes and on-off despatch. This study integrates a combined heat and power MGT, Turbec T100, of 100 kWe output. This include developed models for the MGT using characteristics maps for the compressor and turbine and for the cryogenic carbon capture plant, using two software tools, IPSEpro and Aspen Plus, respectively.