• Interaction between Dietary Fat Intake and Metabolic Genetic Risk Score on 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in a Turkish Adult Population

      Isgin-Atici, Kubra; orcid: 0000-0002-3088-8675; email: k.isginatici@gmail.com; Alathari, Buthaina E.; email: b.e.a.a.alathari@pgr.reading.ac.uk; Turan-Demirci, Busra; orcid: 0000-0001-5497-0887; email: busraturan@hacettepe.edu.tr; Sendur, Suleyman Nahit; email: snahitsendur@hotmail.com; Lay, Incilay; orcid: 0000-0002-1466-5746; email: lincilay@gmail.com; Ellahi, Basma; email: b.ellahi@chester.ac.uk; Alikasifoglu, Mehmet; email: kasif@hacettepe.edu.tr; Erbas, Tomris; orcid: 0000-0003-1377-9394; email: erbast@hacettepe.edu.tr; Buyuktuncer, Zehra; email: zbtuncer@hacettepe.edu.tr; Vimaleswaran, Karani Santhanakrishnan; orcid: 0000-0002-8485-8930; email: v.karani@reading.ac.uk (MDPI, 2022-01-17)
      Previous studies have pointed out a link between vitamin D status and metabolic traits, however, consistent evidence has not been provided yet. This cross-sectional study has used a nutrigenetic approach to investigate the interaction between metabolic-genetic risk score (GRS) and dietary intake on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in 396 unrelated Turkish adults, aged 24−50 years. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly lower in those with a metabolic-GRS ≥ 1 risk allele than those with a metabolic-GRS 1 risk allele (p = 0.020). A significant interaction between metabolic-GRS and dietary fat intake (energy%) on serum 25(OH)D levels was identified (Pinteraction = 0.040). Participants carrying a metabolic-GRS ≥ 1 risk allele and consuming a high fat diet (≥38% of energy = 122.3 ± 52.51 g/day) had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.006) in comparison to those consuming a low-fat diet (38% of energy = 82.5 ± 37.36 g/d). In conclusion, our study suggests a novel interaction between metabolic-GRS and dietary fat intake on serum 25(OH)D level, which emphasises that following the current dietary fat intake recommendation (35% total fat) could be important in reducing the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this Turkish population. Nevertheless, further larger studies are needed to verify this interaction, before implementing personalized dietary recommendations for the maintenance of optimal vitamin D status.
    • Weight loss practices and eating behaviours among female physique athletes: Acquiring the optimal body composition for competition

      editor: McLester, Cherilyn N.; Alwan, Nura; orcid: 0000-0002-7033-6250; email: N.alwan@2016.ljmu.ac.uk; Moss, Samantha L.; Davies, Ian G.; orcid: 0000-0003-3722-8466; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J.; Enright, Kevin (Public Library of Science, 2022-01-14)
      Little is known about weight loss practices and eating behaviours in female physique athletes. This study investigated the weight loss history, practices, and key influences during the pre-competition period in a large cohort of female physique athletes stratified by division and experience level. Eating attitudes and behaviours were assessed to identify whether athletes were at risk of developing an eating disorder. Using a cross-sectional research design, female physique athletes (n = 158) were recruited and completed an anonymous online self-reported survey consisting of two validated questionnaires: Rapid Weight Loss Questionnaire and Eating Attitudes Test-26. Irrespective of division or experience, female physique athletes used a combination of weight loss practices during the pre-competition phase. Gradual dieting (94%), food restriction (64%) and excessive exercise (84%), followed by body water manipulation via water loading (73%) were the most commonly used methods. Overall, 37% of female physique athletes were considered at risk of developing an eating disorder. Additionally, 42% of female physique athletes used two pathogenic weight control methods with 34% of Figure novice athletes indicating binge eating once a week or more. The coach (89%) and another athlete (73%) were identified as key influences on athletes’ dieting practices and weight loss. The prevalence of athletes identified with disordered eating symptoms and engaging in pathogenic weight control methods is concerning. In future, female physique athletes should seek advice from registered nutritionists to optimise weight management practices and minimise the risk of developing an eating disorder.
    • ‘Every partnership [… is] an emotional experience’: towards a model of partnership support for addressing the emotional challenges of student–staff partnerships

      Healey, Ruth L.; orcid: 0000-0001-6872-4900; France, Derek; orcid: 0000-0001-6874-6800 (Informa UK Limited, 2022-01-10)
    • Marginal habitats provide unexpected survival benefits to the alpine marmot

      Ferrari, Caterina; orcid: 0000-0002-6316-9706; email: caterina.ferrari@unito.it; email: caterinaww@gmail.com; Zanet, Stefania; orcid: 0000-0002-7543-399X; Rolando, Antonio; orcid: 0000-0002-3432-1780; Bertolino, Sandro; orcid: 0000-0002-1063-8281; Bassano, Bruno; von Hardenberg, Achaz (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2022-01-06)
      Abstract: Age‐specific survival trajectories can vary significantly among wild populations. Identifying the environmental conditions associated with such variability is of primary importance to understand the dynamics of free‐ranging populations. In this study, we investigated survival variations among alpine marmot (Marmota marmota) families living in areas with opposite environmental characteristics: the typical habitat of the species (alpine meadow) and a marginal area bordering the forest. We used data collected during an 11‐year study in the Gran Paradiso National Park (Italy) and performed a Bayesian survival trajectory analysis on marked individuals. Furthermore, we investigated, at a territorial level, the relationships among demographic parameters and habitat variables by using a path analysis approach. Contrary to our expectations, for most of the marmot's lifespan, survival rate was higher in the marginal site closer to the forest and with lower visibility than in the alpine meadow site. Path analysis indicated that the number of families living close to each other negatively affected the stability of the dominant couple, which in turn affected both juvenile survival and reproduction. Given the lower number of neighboring families which inhabited the marginal site and the potentially different predation pressure by the most effective predator in the area (Aquila chrysaetos), our results suggest that species adapted to live in open habitats may benefit from living in a marginal habitat. This study highlights the importance of habitats bordering the forest in the conservation of alpine marmots.
    • Regucalcin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in Cos-7 kidney cells and translocates from the nucleus to the mitochondria

      Mohammed, Noor A.; Hakeem, Israa J.; Hodges, Nikolas; Michelangeli, Francesco; orcid: 0000-0002-4878-046X (Portland Press Ltd., 2022-01-06)
      Abstract Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anticancer drug, which can have unwanted side-effects such as cardiac and kidney toxicity. A detailed investigation was undertaken of the acute cytotoxic mechanisms of DOX on kidney cells, using Cos-7 cells as kidney cell model. Cos-7 cells were exposed to DOX for a period of 24 h over a range of concentrations, and the LC50 was determined to be 7 µM. Further investigations showed that cell death was mainly via apoptosis involving Ca2+ and caspase 9, in addition to autophagy. Regucalcin (RGN), a cytoprotective protein found mainly in liver and kidney tissues, was overexpressed in Cos-7 cells and shown to protect against DOX-induced cell death. Subcellular localization studies in Cos-7 cells showed RGN to be strongly correlated with the nucleus. However, upon treatment with DOX for 4 h, which induced membrane blebbing in some cells, the localization appeared to be correlated more with the mitochondria in these cells. It is yet to be determined whether this translocation is part of the cytoprotective mechanism or a consequence of chemically induced cell stress.
    • Raising the bar in sports performance research

      Abt, Grant; orcid: 0000-0002-4079-9270; Jobson, Simon; orcid: 0000-0002-1377-2128; Morin, Jean-Benoit; orcid: 0000-0003-3808-6762; Passfield, Louis; orcid: 0000-0001-6223-162X; Sampaio, Jaime; orcid: 0000-0003-2335-9991; Sunderland, Caroline; orcid: 0000-0001-7484-1345; Twist, Craig; orcid: 0000-0001-6168-0378 (Informa UK Limited, 2022-01-06)
    • La mémoire des conflits dans la fiction française contemporaine

      OBERGÖKER, Timo (Informa UK Limited, 2022-01-04)
    • Working After Loss: How Bereavement Counsellors Experience Returning to Therapeutic Work After the Death of Their Parent

      Swinden, Dr. Colleen; orcid: 0000-0002-3076-0778 (SAGE Publications, 2021-12-29)
      Despite increased interest in the impact of external events on counsellors, surprisingly little has been written on counsellor bereavement. To address the research question: How do bereavement counsellors experience therapeutic work after the death of their parent? Interviews were conducted with four bereaved counsellors who reflected on its impact on their work. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Three major themes emerged; how decisions about returning to work were informed by colleagues and supervision; the benefits of returning to work and the use of ‘bracketing’; long-term implications for practice including heightened empathy with clients’ and disclosure of loss. In addition, participants felt they had insufficient guidance regarding fitness to practice. The possible limitations of the study were that self-selection may have introduced an element of bias to the results. These findings support existing literature and also revealed potential gaps in grief and loss training for counsellors and supervisors. A particular training issue for supervisors might be identifying and discussing fitness to practice issues with supervisees. There are also implications for counsellors in terms of the use of self-disclosure in therapy. Suggested further research to explore the use of self-disclosure in greater depth.
    • Ischemic Heart Disease in Nigeria: Exploring the Challenges, Current Status, and Impact of Lifestyle Interventions on Its Primary Healthcare System

      Nnate, Daniel A.; orcid: 0000-0002-8432-9377; email: DNNATE200@caledonian.ac.uk; Eleazu, Chinedum O.; email: chinedum.eleazu@funai.edu.ng; Abaraogu, Ukachukwu O.; orcid: 0000-0002-1967-1459; email: ukachukwu.abaraogu@unn.edu.ng (MDPI, 2021-12-25)
      The burden of ischemic heart disease in Nigeria calls for an evidence-based, innovative, and interdisciplinary approach towards decreasing health inequalities resulting from individual lifestyle and poor socioeconomic status in order to uphold the holistic health of individuals to achieve global sustainability and health equity. The poor diagnosis and management of ischemic heart disease in Nigeria contributes to the inadequate knowledge of its prognosis among individuals, which often results in a decreased ability to seek help and self-care. Hence, current policies aimed at altering lifestyle behaviour to minimize exposure to cardiovascular risk factors may be less suitable for Nigeria’s diverse culture. Mitigating the burden of ischemic heart disease through the equitable access to health services and respect for the autonomy and beliefs of individuals in view of achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) requires comprehensive measures to accommodate, as much as possible, every individual, notwithstanding their values and socioeconomic status.
    • Bleeding Data across Baseline FIX Expression Levels in People with Hemophilia B: An Analysis Using the 'Factor Expression Study'

      Burke, Tom; Shaikh, Anum; Ali, Talaha; Li, Nanxin; Konkle, Barbara A; Noone, Declan; O'Mahony, Brian; Pipe, Steven W; O'Hara, Jamie (Elsevier, 2021-12-24)
      Introduction Complications such as spontaneous and trauma-related bleeding events typically experienced by people with hemophilia B (PWHB) are associated with long-term joint damage and chronic pain, and burdensome treatment with intravenous factor IX administration. Gene therapy, designed to enable the endogenous production of the missing clotting factor, has potential for curative benefit in PWHB (Dolan et al, 2018). Due to its link to risk for bleeding episodes, factor expression level (FEL) is commonly used as an endpoint in hemophilia gene therapy trials. However, little data currently exist linking FEL to bleeding risk in PWHB, most notably within the mild range. As such, the aim of this analysis was to examine the relationship between annual bleed rate (ABR) data across baseline FEL in PWHB. Methods Data from adult non-inhibitor PWHB, across Europe and the United States (US) who received clotting factor on-demand (OD), were drawn from the 'Cost of HaEmophilia in adults: a Socioeconomic Survey' (CHESS) studies. The CHESS studies are retrospective, burden-of-illness studies in people with hemophilia A or B, capturing the economic and humanistic burden associated with living with hemophilia. Additional data were collected to supplement the existing CHESS studies, particularly in people with exogenous FEL in the mild and moderate range. ABR was defined as the physician-reported number of bleed events experienced by the patient in the 12 months to study capture. A generalized linear model (GLM) was used to analyze variation in ABR data across FEL, adjusting for covariates age, body mass index (BMI), and blood-borne viruses. Following this, a multivariable restricted cubic spline (RCS) GLM regression was performed to create, model, and test for the potential non-linear relationship between FEL and ABR. The RCS regression employed 3 knots, located at baseline FEL values of 1, 5, and 10, and controlled once again for age, BMI, and blood-borne viruses. Results A total of 407 adult non-inhibitor PWHB, receiving an OD therapy regimen and with information on ABR, were profiled. The GLM provided adequate fit for the modeling of bleed data; the average marginal effect at the mean was computed from the GLM regression outputs. After controlling for the effects of all other model covariates, the regression analysis showed a significant association between FEL and ABR; for every 1% increase in FEL, the average ABR decreased by 0.08 units (p<0.001). The results of the RCS regression found a significant non-linear relationship between FEL and ABR, ceteris paribus (p<0.001). Conclusions The results of this analysis found baseline FEL to be significantly associated with ABR in PWHB; as baseline FEL increased, ABR reduced. This highlights the clinical importance of new hemophilia gene therapies potentially increasing FEL to that of the mild or non-hemophilic range in terms of reducing patient burden through the better prevention of bleeding events in PWHB. Disclosures Ali:  UniQure: Current Employment. Li:  UniQure: Current Employment. Konkle:  Pfizer, Sangamo, Sanofi, Sigilon, Spark, Takeda and Uniqure: Research Funding; BioMarin, Pfizer and Sigilon: Consultancy. O'Mahony:  BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc.: Consultancy; Freeline: Consultancy; Uniqure: Speakers Bureau. Pipe:  Apcintex: Consultancy; ASC Therapeutics: Consultancy; Bayer: Consultancy; Biomarin: Consultancy, Other: Clinical trial investigator; Catalyst Biosciences: Consultancy; CSL Behring: Consultancy; HEMA Biologics: Consultancy; Freeline: Consultancy, Other: Clinical trial investigator; Novo Nordisk: Consultancy; Pfizer: Consultancy; Roche/Genentech: Consultancy, Other; Sangamo Therapeutics: Consultancy; Sanofi: Consultancy, Other; Takeda: Consultancy; Spark Therapeutics: Consultancy; uniQure: Consultancy, Other; Regeneron/ Intellia: Consultancy; Genventiv: Consultancy; Grifols: Consultancy; Octapharma: Consultancy; Shire: Consultancy.
    • Arts-Aided Recognition of Citizens’ Perceptions for Urban Open Space Management

      Suomalainen, Sari; orcid: 0000-0003-4839-841X; email: sari.suomalainen@student.lut.fi; Kahiluoto, Helena; email: helena.kahiluoto@lut.fi; Pässilä, Anne; email: anne.passila@lut.fi; Owens, Allan; email: a.owens@chester.ac.uk; Holtham, Clive; email: c.w.holtham@city.ac.uk (MDPI, 2021-12-23)
      Urban open spaces of local natural environments can promote the health and well-being of both ecosystems and humans, and the management of the urban spaces can benefit from knowledge of individuals’/citizens’ perceptions of such environments. However, such knowledge is scarce and contemporary inquiries are often limited to cognitive observations and focused on built environmental elements rather than encouraged to recognize and communicate comprehensive perceptions. This paper investigates whether arts-based methods can facilitate recognition and understanding perceptions of urban open spaces. Two arts-based methods were used to capture perceptions: drifting, which is a walking method, and theatrical images, which is a still image method and three reflective methods to recognize and communicate the perceptions. The results show related sensations and perceptions enabled by arts-based methods comparing them to a sticker map method. The main findings were perceptions, which included information about human−environment interaction, about relations to other people and about ‘sense of place’ in urban open spaces. The hitherto unidentified perceptions about urban open space were associations, metaphors and memories. The methods used offer initial practical implications for future use.
    • ‘He didn’t really talk about it’: the (re)construction and transmission of a Free French past

      Millington, Chris; Millington, Richard; orcid: 0000-0002-1324-9521 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-12-21)
    • The complementarities of digitalisation and productivity: redefining boundaries for financial sector

      Gul, Razia; Ellahi, Nazima; Leong, Kelvin; Malik, Qaiser Ali (Informa UK Limited, 2021-12-21)
    • Modeling cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis

      Mc Auley, Mark Tomás; orcid: 0000-0001-9230-6928 (Wiley, 2021-12-20)
    • Effects of Radiation sterilization Dose on the Molecular Weight and Gelling Properties of Commercial Alginate Samples

      Mollah, M. Z. I.; email: zahirul1973@yahoo.com; Rahaman, M S.; Faruque, M R I.; Khandaker, M U.; Osman, Hamid; Alamri, Sultan; Al-Assaf, Saphwan (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-12-20)
      To estimate the molecular weight (Mw) and gelling properties, a total of 26 alginate samples consisting of control (n = 13) and 15 kGy γ-irradiated (n = 13) samples were characterized through viscometric and gel permeation chromatography (GPC-MALLS) methods. Based on the observations, a remarkable decrease in the intrinsic viscosity of all samples of alginates was evident due to the effects of radiation, with a linear relationship between viscosity and concentration in 0.01 M NaCl solution. The correlation among the Mw, percentage mass recovery, radii of gyration (Rz/Rg), and percentage reduction of Mw assessed by GPC was significant. The Mw decreased dramatically (from 3.1 × 105 to 0.49 × 105 mole/g in sample no. 12) by the effect of radiation with momentous relation to the % reduction of the molecular weight. The highest molecular weight reduction (84%), which is the most sensitive to γ-radiation, and the average reduction rate was ≥50%. The mass recovery was 100% obtained from samples no. 1,3,4,5,7,12, and 13, while the rest of the samples’ recovery rate was significantly higher. The reduction rate of mass molecular weight (Mw) is higher than the average molecular weight (Mv), but they showed a sensitivity towards radiation, consequently their performance are different from each other. The stability test was performed as a critical behaviour in the control, recurrently same as in the irradiated samples. Thus, the sterilization dose of 15 kGy for the Mw distribution, and subsequently for the characterization, was significantly effective.
    • Modeling cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis.

      Mc Auley, Mark Tomás; orcid: 0000-0001-9230-6928 (2021-12-20)
      Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among Western populations. Many risk factors have been identified for ASCVD; however, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remains the gold standard. Cholesterol metabolism at the cellular and whole-body level is maintained by an array of interacting components. These regulatory mechanisms have complex behavior. Likewise, the mechanisms which underpin atherogenesis are nontrivial and multifaceted. To help overcome the challenge of investigating these processes mathematical modeling, which is a core constituent of the systems biology paradigm has played a pivotal role in deciphering their dynamics. In so doing models have revealed new insights about the key drivers of ASCVD. The aim of this review is fourfold; to provide an overview of cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis, to briefly introduce mathematical approaches used in this field, to critically discuss models of cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis, and to highlight areas where mathematical modeling could help to investigate in the future. This article is categorized under: Cardiovascular Diseases > Computational Models. [Abstract copyright: © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.]
    • Clinical, humanistic, and economic burden of severe haemophilia B in adults receiving factor IX prophylaxis: findings from the CHESS II real-world burden of illness study in Europe

      Burke, Tom; Asghar, Sohaib; orcid: 0000-0001-8276-0131; O’Hara, Jamie; Chuang, Margaret; Sawyer, Eileen K.; Li, Nanxin; email: n.li@uniqure.com (BioMed Central, 2021-12-20)
      Abstract: Background: Real-world studies of the burden of severe haemophilia B in the context of recent therapeutic advances such as extended half-life (EHL) factor IX (FIX) products are limited. We analysed data from the recent CHESS II study to better understand the clinical, humanistic, and economic burden of severe haemophilia B in Europe. Data from male adults with severe haemophilia B receiving prophylaxis were analysed from the retrospective cross-sectional CHESS II study conducted in Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom. Inhibitors were exclusionary. Patients and physicians completed questionnaires on bleeding, joint status, quality of life, and haemophilia-related direct and indirect costs (2019–2020). All outcomes were summarised using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 75 CHESS II patients were eligible and included; 40 patients (53%) provided self-reported outcomes. Mean age was 36.2 years. Approximately half the patients were receiving EHL versus standard half-life (SHL) prophylaxis (44% vs 56%). Most patients reported mild or moderate chronic pain (76%) and had ≥ 2 bleeding events per year (70%), with a mean annualised bleed rate of 2.4. Mean annual total haemophilia-related direct medical cost per patient was €235,723, driven by FIX costs (€232,328 overall, n = 40; €186,528 for SHL, €290,620 for EHL). Mean annual indirect costs (€8,973) were driven by early retirement or work stoppage due to haemophilia. Mean quality of life (EQ-5D) score was 0.67. Conclusions: These data document a substantial, persistent real-world burden of severe haemophilia B in Europe. Unmet needs persist for these patients, their caregivers, and society.
    • Bi-exponential modelling of [Formula: see text] reconstitution kinetics in trained cyclists.

      Chorley, Alan; orcid: 0000-0003-0000-3394; email: a.chorley@chester.ac.uk; Bott, Richard P; orcid: 0000-0002-7842-2436; Marwood, Simon; orcid: 0000-0003-4668-1131; Lamb, Kevin L; orcid: 0000-0003-4481-4711 (2021-12-18)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the individual [Formula: see text] reconstitution kinetics of trained cyclists following repeated bouts of incremental ramp exercise, and to determine an optimal mathematical model to describe [Formula: see text] reconstitution. Ten trained cyclists (age 41 ± 10 years; mass 73.4 ± 9.9 kg; [Formula: see text] 58.6 ± 7.1 mL kg min ) completed three incremental ramps (20 W min ) to the limit of tolerance with varying recovery durations (15-360 s) on 5-9 occasions. [Formula: see text] reconstitution was measured following the first and second recovery periods against which mono-exponential and bi-exponential models were compared with adjusted R and bias-corrected Akaike information criterion (AICc). A bi-exponential model outperformed the mono-exponential model of [Formula: see text] reconstitution (AICc 30.2 versus 72.2), fitting group mean data well (adjR  = 0.999) for the first recovery when optimised with parameters of fast component (FC) amplitude = 50.67%; slow component (SC) amplitude = 49.33%; time constant (τ)  = 21.5 s; τ  = 388 s. Following the second recovery, W' reconstitution reduced by 9.1 ± 7.3%, at 180 s and 8.2 ± 9.8% at 240 s resulting in an increase in the modelled τ to 716 s with τ unchanged. Individual bi-exponential models also fit well (adjR  = 0.978 ± 0.017) with large individual parameter variations (FC amplitude 47.7 ± 17.8%; first recovery: (τ)  = 22.0 ± 11.8 s; (τ)  = 377 ± 100 s; second recovery: (τ)  = 16.3.0 ± 6.6 s; (τ)  = 549 ± 226 s). W' reconstitution kinetics were best described by a bi-exponential model consisting of distinct fast and slow phases. The amplitudes of the FC and SC remained unchanged with repeated bouts, with a slowing of W' reconstitution confined to an increase in the time constant of the slow component. [Abstract copyright: © 2021. The Author(s).]