• Towards adoption of mobile data collection for effective adaptation and climate risk management in Africa

      Adekola, Olalekan; orcid: 0000-0001-9747-0583; email: o.adekola@yorksj.ac.uk; Lamond, Jessica; orcid: 0000-0001-8931-0192; Adelekan, Ibidun; orcid: 0000-0002-3407-8549; Bhattacharya‐Mis, Namrata; orcid: 0000-0003-4967-8325; Ekinya, Mboto; Bassey Eze, Eze; Ujoh, Fanan; orcid: 0000-0003-2554-0815 (2022-05-16)
      Abstract: The collection and use of data on climate change and its impacts are crucial for effective climate adaptation and climate risk management. The revolution in internet access, technology and costs has led to a shift from using traditional paper‐based data collection to the use of Mobile Data Collection using Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) such as smartphones and tablets. In this paper, we report our experiences using both approaches for a household and business survey during a climate adaptation study in two Nigerian cities—Makurdi and Calabar. The focus of this paper is to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of using traditional paper‐based data collection and PDAs as data collection tools for climate change study in African societies. In Calabar, data were collected using paper questionnaires, while in Makurdi the questionnaires were developed on Open Data Kit (ODK) and administered using PDAs. Results show that data collection using PDA was faster, cheaper, more accurate and resulted in fewer omissions than paper‐based data collection. There was a time saving of four (4) minutes per questionnaire and a 24% cost saving when using PDA. PDA provides additional benefits where platforms can collect images, videos and coordinates. This significantly improved the credibility of the data collection process and provided further data that allowed for the mapping of environmental phenomena by linking survey research with geo‐referenced data in a geographic information systems platform to provide spatial representations of social and environmental system convergence. PDA offers a tool for collecting data that will make necessary socio‐environmental data available in a faster, reliable and cheaper manner; future research can build on this study by discovering other possible but less highlighted benefits of PDA. Although, with great benefits, there are lessons to be learnt and issues to consider when deploying PDA in large‐scale household surveys.
    • Magazines as contradictory spaces for alcohol messaging: a mixed method content and thematic analysis of UK women’s magazine representations of alcohol and its consumption

      Atkinson, A. M.; orcid: 0000-0002-9936-6138; Meadows, B. R.; Ross-Houle, K. M.; Smith, C.; Sumnall, H. R.; orcid: 0000-0002-7841-9245 (Informa UK Limited, 2022-05-16)
    • Towards adoption of mobile data collection for effective adaptation and climate risk management in Africa

      Adekola, Olalekan; orcid: 0000-0001-9747-0583; Lamond, Jessica; orcid: 0000-0001-8931-0192; Adelekan, Ibidun; orcid: 0000-0002-3407-8549; Bhattacharya‐Mis, Namrata; orcid: 0000-0003-4967-8325; Ekinya, Mboto; Bassey Eze, Eze; Ujoh, Fanan; orcid: 0000-0003-2554-0815 (Wiley, 2022-05-16)
    • Factors Influencing COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake among Nepali People in the UK: A Qualitative Study

      Simkhada, Padam; email: p.p.simkhada@hud.ac.uk; Tamang, Pasang; orcid: 0000-0003-2733-7239; email: pasang.tamang@hud.ac.uk; Timilsina, Laxmi; email: laxmi.timalsina@hud.ac.uk; Simkhada, Bibha; email: b.d.simkhada@hud.ac.uk; Bissell, Paul; email: p.bissell@chester.ac.uk; van Teijlingen, Edwin; email: evteijlingen@bournemouth.ac.uk; Sah, Sunil Kumar; email: sunil.sah@nhs.net; Wasti, Sharada Prasad; orcid: 0000-0001-8833-7801; email: s.p.wasti@hud.ac.uk (MDPI, 2022-05-14)
      Vaccination saves lives and can be an effective strategy for preventing the spread of the COVID-19, but negative attitudes towards vaccines lead to vaccine hesitancy. This study aimed to explore the factors influencing the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine in the Nepali community in the United Kingdom (UK). This qualitative study included in-depth interviews with 20 people from Nepal living in the UK. Interviews were conducted by a native-Nepali speaker and all interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated into English before being analysed thematically. Our study found that attitudes towards COVID-19 are generally positive. Nine overlapping themes around barriers to COVID-19 vaccination were identified: (a) rumours and mis/disinformation; (b) prefer home remedies and yoga; (c) religion restriction; (d) concern towards vaccine eligibility; (e) difficulty with online vaccine booking system; (f) doubts of vaccine effectiveness after changing the second dose timeline; (g) lack of confidence in the vaccine; (h) past bad experience with the influenza vaccine; and i) worried about side-effects. Understanding barriers to the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine can help in the design of better targeted interventions. Public health messages including favourable policy should be tailored to address those barriers and make this vaccination programme more viable and acceptable to the ethnic minority communities in the UK.
    • Nursing care for the military veteran and their family.

      Finnegan, Alan; orcid: 0000-0002-2189-4926; Randles, Rebecca; orcid: 0000-0002-7401-5817 (2022-05-09)
    • Beyond the medical encounter: can the free association narrative interview method extend psychosocial understandings of non-epileptic attack disorder?

      Peacock, Marian; Dickson, Jon M.; Bissell, Paul; Grunewald, Richard; Reuber, Markus (Bristol University Press, 2022-05-05)
      This exploratory interdisciplinary study was devised to explore how using the free association narrative interview (FANI) method might extend understanding of non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD) within a psychosocial framework. NEAD is the medical definition of what can be described as embodied events that resemble epilepsy, but which are not associated with the abnormal electrical discharges in the brain found in epilepsy. They are the most frequent ‘functional’ disorder or medically unexplained symptom (MUS) seen by neurologists. While NEAD is associated with trauma, distress and negative life events, a significant minority of patients report no trauma history. The FANI method, we argue, produced narratives which shed light on events that patients have not acknowledged as traumatic, but which might be considered as such, and we explore what aspects of the method may facilitate this process. Previous work has highlighted that a diagnosis of NEAD is often experienced as deeply troubling and contentious to both give and to receive. We thus reflect on the need for patients to feel a sense of legitimacy and how the challenges of living with a NEAD diagnosis are negotiated. Drawing on the work of Benjamin (2004) on ‘thirdness’, we suggest that the FANI method can allow the research interview to become a space that facilitates novel ways of engaging around NEAD. We conclude that the method may be a powerful tool for studying NEAD, and that further studies should be undertaken using this approach since it may have broader utility in understanding the landscape of functional neurological disorders.
    • Causation, historiographic approaches and the investigation of serious adverse incidents in mental health settings

      Bhandari, Sahil; Thomassen, Øyvind; Nathan, Rajan; orcid: 0000-0003-2780-6170 (SAGE Publications, 2022-05-03)
      To improve the safety of healthcare systems, it is necessary to understand harm-related events that occur in these systems. In mental health services, particular attention is paid to harm arising from the actions of patients against themselves or others. The primary intention of examining these adverse events is to inform changes to care provision so as to reduce the likelihood of the recurrence of such events. The predominant approach to investigating adverse incidents has relied on the cause-and-effect conceptualisation of past events. Whilst the merits of approaches which are reliant on cause-and-effect narratives have been questioned, alternatives models to explain adverse incidents in health settings have not been theoretically or empirically tested. This novel article (i) examines the notion of causation (and the related notion of omission) in the context of explaining adverse events in mental health settings, and (ii) draws on a long-established discipline devoted to the study of how the past is interpreted (namely historiography) to theoretically investigate the innovative application of two historiographical approaches (i.e. counterfactual analysis and historical materialism) to understanding adverse events in mental health settings.
    • Active agents of change: A conceptual framework for social justice-orientated citizenship education

      Egan-Simon, Daryn; orcid: 0000-0002-3570-9090 (SAGE Publications, 2022-05-03)
      Social justice–orientated citizenship education (SJCE) can help young people to develop the knowledge, skills and dispositions to work collectively towards solutions to problems such as human rights violations, global poverty and environmental sustainability (DeJaeghere and Tudball, 2007; Banks, 2017; Hartung, 2017). Furthermore, SJCE can enable young people to think critically, consciously and compassionately and allow them to grow intellectually with a concern for equality and justice. This paper presents a conceptual framework for SJCE for educators and educational researchers wishing to explore citizenship education within social justice contexts. The framework is based on four constitutive elements: agency, dialogue, criticality and emancipatory knowledge, and has its philosophical foundations deeply rooted in the values and principles of critical pedagogy (Kincheloe, 2004; McLaren, 2014; Giroux, 2016). This conceptual framework for SJCE is ultimately concerned with developing justice-orientated active agents of change who are concerned with making the world more democratic, equitable and just.
    • The ‘physician-athlete’ and the development of sports medicine as a ‘very peculiar practice’

      Waddington, Ivan; Brissonneau, Christophe (Informa UK Limited, 2022-05-03)
    • Causation, historiographic approaches and the investigation of serious adverse incidents in mental health settings.

      Bhandari, Sahil; Thomassen, Øyvind; Nathan, Rajan; orcid: 0000-0003-2780-6170 (2022-05-03)
      To improve the safety of healthcare systems, it is necessary to understand harm-related events that occur in these systems. In mental health services, particular attention is paid to harm arising from the actions of patients against themselves or others. The primary intention of examining these adverse events is to inform changes to care provision so as to reduce the likelihood of the recurrence of such events. The predominant approach to investigating adverse incidents has relied on the cause-and-effect conceptualisation of past events. Whilst the merits of approaches which are reliant on cause-and-effect narratives have been questioned, alternatives models to explain adverse incidents in health settings have not been theoretically or empirically tested. This novel article (i) examines the notion of causation (and the related notion of omission) in the context of explaining adverse events in mental health settings, and (ii) draws on a long-established discipline devoted to the study of how the past is interpreted (namely historiography) to theoretically investigate the innovative application of two historiographical approaches (i.e. counterfactual analysis and historical materialism) to understanding adverse events in mental health settings.
    • Reassessing the health impacts of trade and investment agreements: a systematic review of quantitative studies, 2016-20.

      Barlow, Pepita; Sanap, Rujuta; Garde, Amandine; Winters, L Alan; Mabhala, Mzwandile A; Thow, Anne-Marie (2022-05)
      To ensure a high level of health protection, governments must ensure that health and trade policy objectives are aligned. We conducted a systematic review of the health impacts of trade policies, including trade and investment agreements (TIAs), to provide a timely overview of this field. We systematically reviewed studies evaluating the health impacts of trade policies published between Jan 19, 2016, and July 10, 2020. Included studies were quantitative studies evaluating the impact of TIAs and trade policies on health determinants or outcomes. We evaluated methodological quality and performed a narrative synthesis. 21 of 28 067 articles identified via searches met our criteria. Methodologically strong studies found reduced child mortality, deteriorating worker health, rising supplies of sugar, ultra-processed food, tobacco, and alcohol supplies, and increased drug overdoses following trade reforms, compared with the time periods before trade reform. However, associations varied substantially across contexts and socioeconomic characteristics. Our findings show that trade policies, including TIAs, have diverse effects on health and health determinants. These effects vary substantially across contexts and socioeconomic groups. Governments seeking to adopt healthy trade policies should consider these updated findings to ensure that opportunities for health improvement are leveraged and widely shared, while harms are avoided, especially among vulnerable groups. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.]
    • Suicide rates amongst individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Troya, M Isabela; Spittal, Matthew J; Pendrous, Rosina; Crowley, Grace; Gorton, Hayley C; Russell, Kirsten; Byrne, Sadhbh; Musgrove, Rebecca; Hannah-Swain, Stephanie; Kapur, Navneet; et al. (2022-04-28)
      Existing evidence suggests that some individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds are at increased risk of suicide compared to their majority ethnic counterparts, whereas others are at decreased risk. We aimed to estimate the absolute and relative risk of suicide in individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds globally. Databases (Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo) were searched for epidemiological studies between 01/01/2000 and 3/07/2020, which provided data on absolute and relative rates of suicide amongst ethnic minority groups. Studies reporting on clinical or specific populations were excluded. Pairs of reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts, and full texts. We used random effects meta-analysis to estimate overall, sex, location, migrant status, and ancestral origin, stratified pooled estimates for absolute and rate ratios. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020197940. A total of 128 studies were included with 6,026,103 suicide deaths in individuals from an ethnic minority background across 31 countries. Using data from 42 moderate-high quality studies, we estimated a pooled suicide rate of 12·1 per 100,000 (95% CIs 8·4-17·6) in people from ethnic minority backgrounds with a broad range of estimates (1·2-139·7 per 100,000). There was weak statistical evidence from 51 moderate-high quality studies that individuals from ethnic minority groups were more likely to die by suicide (RR 1·3 95% CIs 0·9-1·7) with again a broad range amongst studies (RR 0·2-18·5). In our sub-group analysis we only found evidence of elevated risk for indigenous populations (RR: 2·8 95% CIs 1·9-4·0; pooled rate: 23·2 per 100,000 95% CIs 14·7-36·6). There was very substantial heterogeneity (  > 98%) between studies for all pooled estimates. The homogeneous grouping of individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds is inappropriate. To support suicide prevention in marginalised groups, further exploration of important contextual differences in risk is required. It is possible that some ethnic minority groups (for example those from indigenous backgrounds) have higher rates of suicide than majority populations. No specific funding was provided to conduct this research. DK is funded by Wellcome Trust and Elizabeth Blackwell Institute Bristol. Matthew Spittal is a recipient of an Australian Research Council Future Fellowship (project number FT180100075) funded by the Australian Government. Rebecca Musgrove is funded by the NIHR Greater Manchester Patient Safety Translational Research Centre (PSTRC-2016-003). [Abstract copyright: © 2022 The Authors.]
    • Educators’ experiences and perspectives of child weight discussions with parents in primary school settings

      Coupe, Nia; orcid: 0000-0003-4974-5794; Peters, Sarah; Ayres, Matilda; Clabon, Katie; Reilly, Alexandra; Chisholm, Anna; email: anna.chisholm@liverpool.ac.uk (BioMed Central, 2022-04-22)
      Abstract: Background: The role of schools in addressing rising childhood obesity levels has been acknowledged, and numerous diet- and physical activity-related interventions exist. Aside from formal interventions, opportunistic parent-educator conversations about child weight can arise, particularly in primary school settings, yet little is known about how useful these are. This study aimed to understand the utility of child weight related conversations with parents through exploring educators’ experiences and perspectives. Methods: This qualitative study consisted of semi-structured interviews conducted with primary school teaching staff in the United Kingdom (N = 23), recruited through purposive and subsequent snowball sampling. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Participants identified opportunities and need for child weight discussions in schools. However, conversations were prevented by the indirect and sensitive nature of conversations, and educators’ professional identity beliefs. Using pre-existing face-to-face opportunities, good parent-teacher relationships and holistic approaches to child health and wellbeing were reported as important in optimising these conversations. Conclusions: Whilst educator-parent child weight discussions are necessary, discussions are highly challenging, with contradictory views on responsibility sometimes resulting in avoidance. Educators’ roles should be clarified, and communication training tailored to increase teacher confidence and skills. Current social distancing will likely reduce opportunistic encounters, highlighting a need to further improve communication routes.
    • Educators' experiences and perspectives of child weight discussions with parents in primary school settings.

      Coupe, Nia; orcid: 0000-0003-4974-5794; Peters, Sarah; Ayres, Matilda; Clabon, Katie; Reilly, Alexandra; Chisholm, Anna (2022-04-22)
      <h4>Background</h4>The role of schools in addressing rising childhood obesity levels has been acknowledged, and numerous diet- and physical activity-related interventions exist. Aside from formal interventions, opportunistic parent-educator conversations about child weight can arise, particularly in primary school settings, yet little is known about how useful these are. This study aimed to understand the utility of child weight related conversations with parents through exploring educators' experiences and perspectives.<h4>Methods</h4>This qualitative study consisted of semi-structured interviews conducted with primary school teaching staff in the United Kingdom (N = 23), recruited through purposive and subsequent snowball sampling. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed using thematic analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Participants identified opportunities and need for child weight discussions in schools. However, conversations were prevented by the indirect and sensitive nature of conversations, and educators' professional identity beliefs. Using pre-existing face-to-face opportunities, good parent-teacher relationships and holistic approaches to child health and wellbeing were reported as important in optimising these conversations.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Whilst educator-parent child weight discussions are necessary, discussions are highly challenging, with contradictory views on responsibility sometimes resulting in avoidance. Educators' roles should be clarified, and communication training tailored to increase teacher confidence and skills. Current social distancing will likely reduce opportunistic encounters, highlighting a need to further improve communication routes.
    • Examining patient and professional perspectives in the UK for gene therapy in haemophilia

      Woollacott, Ione; Morgan, George; orcid: 0000-0003-2014-3415; Chowdary, Pratima; O'Hara, Jamie; Franks, Bethany; Overbeeke, Eline; orcid: 0000-0003-0073-9350; Dunn, Nicola; Michelsen, Sissel; Huys, Isabelle; Martin, Antony; orcid: 0000-0003-4383-6038; et al. (Wiley, 2022-04-19)
    • Baseline Behavioral Data and Behavioral Correlates of Disturbance for the Lake Oku Clawed Frog ( Xenopus longipes )

      Dias, Jemma E.; email: jemmaedias@gmail.com; Ellis, Charlotte; email: charlotte.ellis@zsl.org; Smith, Tessa E.; email: tessa.smith@chester.ac.uk; Hosie, Charlotte A.; orcid: 0000-0002-3869-2108; email: l.hosie@chester.ac.uk; Tapley, Benjamin; email: ben.tapley@zsl.org; Michaels, Christopher J.; orcid: 0000-0002-4733-8397; email: christopher.michaels@zsl.org (MDPI, 2022-04-19)
      Animal behavior and welfare science can form the basis of zoo animal management. However, even basic behavioral data are lacking for the majority of amphibian species, and species-specific research is required to inform management. Our goal was to develop the first ethogram for the critically endangered frog Xenopus longipes through observation of a captive population of 24 frogs. The ethogram was applied to produce a diurnal activity budget and to measure the behavioral impact of a routine health check where frogs were restrained. In the activity budget, frogs spent the vast majority of time swimming, resting in small amounts of time devoted to feeding, foraging, breathing, and (in males) amplexus. Using linear mixed models, we found no effect of time of day or sex on baseline behavior, other than for breathing, which had a greater duration in females. Linear mixed models indicated significant effects of the health check on duration of swimming, resting, foraging, feeding, and breathing behaviors for all frogs. This indicates a welfare trade-off associated with veterinary monitoring and highlights the importance of non-invasive monitoring where possible, as well as providing candidates for behavioral monitoring of acute stress. This investigation has provided the first behavioral data for this species which can be applied to future research regarding husbandry and management practices.
    • Examining patient and professional perspectives in the UK for gene therapy in haemophilia.

      Woollacott, Ione; Morgan, George; orcid: 0000-0003-2014-3415; Chowdary, Pratima; O'Hara, Jamie; Franks, Bethany; van Overbeeke, Eline; orcid: 0000-0003-0073-9350; Dunn, Nicola; Michelsen, Sissel; Huys, Isabelle; Martin, Antony; orcid: 0000-0003-4383-6038; et al. (2022-04-19)
      With the development of gene therapy for people with haemophilia (PWH), it is important to understand how people impacted by haemophilia (PIH) and clinicians prioritise haemophilia treatment attributes to support informed treatment decisions. To examine the treatment attribute preferences of PIH and clinical experts in the United Kingdom (UK) and to develop a profile of gene therapy characteristics fit for use in future discrete choice experiments (DCEs). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with PIH (n = 14) and clinical experts (n = 6) who ranked pre-defined treatment attributes by importance. Framework analysis was conducted to identify key themes and treatment attributes; points were allocated based on the rankings. Synthesis of results by a multidisciplinary group informed development of a profile of gene therapy characteristics for use in future research. Key themes identified by PIH and clinical experts included patient relevant features and the importance of 'informed decision making'. The six top-ranked treatment attributes were 'effect on factor level' (79 points), 'uncertainty regarding long-term risks' (57 points), 'impact on daily life' (41 points), 'frequency of monitoring' (33 points), 'impact on ability to participate in physical activity' (29 points), and 'uncertainty regarding long-term benefits' (28 points). The final treatment characteristics were categorised as therapeutic option, treatment effectiveness, safety concerns, impact on self-management and quality of life (role limitations). We identified several gene therapy characteristics important to PIH and clinicians in the UK. These characteristics will be used in a future DCE to further investigate patient preferences for gene therapy. [Abstract copyright: © 2022 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.]
    • Examining patient and professional perspectives in the UK for gene therapy in haemophilia

      Woollacott, Ione; Morgan, George; orcid: 0000-0003-2014-3415; Chowdary, Pratima; O'Hara, Jamie; Franks, Bethany; Overbeeke, Eline; orcid: 0000-0003-0073-9350; Dunn, Nicola; Michelsen, Sissel; Huys, Isabelle; Martin, Antony; orcid: 0000-0003-4383-6038; et al. (Wiley, 2022-04-19)
    • Right cardiac chambers echo‐bubble contrast in a patient with decompression sickness: A case report and a literature review

      Harfoush, Allam; orcid: 0000-0001-7317-4237; email: allamharf@gmail.com; Ramadan, Mohammad; Hamdallah, Hanady (2022-04-14)
      Abstract: The diagnosis of decompression sickness (DCS) is mostly based on clinical suspicion, and there is currently no available modality to fully confirm the diagnosis. However, the use of echocardiography in suspected DCS cases has become more common. In this case, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was used to detect microbubbles in the right cardiac chambers and monitor the patient after hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), suggesting the possible applicability of TTE in diagnosing and monitoring DCS patients. This report describes a 54‐year‐old Fisherman who was referred to the emergency department with dyspnea and mild confusion after a rapid ascent of a saturation dive at 50 m sea depth. After the initial evaluation, he was assessed using TTE to exclude the presence of structural heart disease, where it surprisingly showed spontaneous echo contrast inside the right cardiac chambers similar to agitated saline echo testing. The patient was then admitted for HBOT and follow‐up; rapid improvement was noticed after the first HBOT session and the TTE findings were fully resolved. TTE could be considered in the initial workup when DCS is suspected, and it might have a role in monitoring DCS patients if echocardiographic findings of bubble formation were documented in the pre‐hyperbaric therapy settings.