Now showing items 1-20 of 6624

    • Bowel cancer knowledge gaps evident among Irish residents: results of a national questionnaire survey.

      Flynn, Laura; orcid: 0000-0002-6982-4249; Fallows, Stephen (2023-01-19)
      The extent of knowledge of bowel cancer, its symptoms and risk factors are unknown in Irish residents. An understanding of bowel cancer awareness may be useful in aiding healthcare professionals, and policy makers develop improved bowel cancer awareness programmes and public health initiatives in Ireland. A 22-question online questionnaire survey was designed to gather data to assess residents' awareness of bowel cancer, its symptoms, and risk factors and to determine reasons for not participating in BowelScreen Ireland. There were 449 participants (329 women, 119 men and 1 'prefer not to say'). The majority of participants were aged 35-49 years (42.8%), and 82.6% had completed a third level qualification. Irish residents (non-healthcare professionals/scientists (NHCP/S)) recalled on average less than three warning signs/symptoms. Among NHCP/S the most well-recalled protective diet and lifestyle choices were active lifestyle/exercise (62.1%), a fibre rich diet (45.4%) and no/low alcohol consumption (32.1%). Many were unable to recall red and processed meat as risk factors with only 10.7% and 4.9%, respectively, citing these foods. However, prompted awareness was superior with 71.1% agreeing or strongly agreeing that consumption of red and processed meat is a risk factor. 43.4% said they would be 'fairly confident' in recognising a sign/symptom, but more than a third (38.7%) reported they were 'not very confident'. This survey emphasises the need to improve the awareness of bowel cancer as gaps in this specific cancer knowledge were evident among Irish residents. [Abstract copyright: © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland.]
    • The cariogenic effect of starch on oral microcosm grown within the dual constant depth film fermenter

      Roberts, Jonathan M.; Bradshaw, David J.; Lynch, Richard J.M.; Higham, Susan M.; Valappil, Sabeel P.; University of Liverpool; GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare; University of Chester (Public Library of Science, 2021-10-20)
      Evidence on the link between starch intake and caries incidence is conflicting, therefore the cariogenicity of starch compared with sucrose was explored using a dual Constant Depth Film Fermenter (dCDFF) biotic model system. Bovine enamel discs were used as a substrate and the dCDFF was inoculated using human saliva. CDFF units were supplemented with artificial saliva growth media at a constant rate to mimic resting salivary flow rate over 14 days. The CDFF units were exposed to different conditions, 2 % sucrose or 2 % starch 8 times daily and either no additional fluoride or 1450 ppm F- twice daily. Bovine enamel discs were removed at intervals (days 3, 7, 10 and 14) for bacterial enumeration and enamel analysis using Quantitative Light Induced Fluorescence (QLF) and Transverse Microradiography (TMR). Results showed that in the absence of fluoride there was generally no difference in mineral loss between enamel exposed to either sucrose or starch when analysed using TMR and QLF (P > 0.05). In the presence of fluoride by day 14 there was significantly more mineral loss under starch than sucrose when analysed with TMR (P < 0.05). It was confirmed that starch and sucrose are similarly cariogenic within the dCDFF in the absence of fluoride. With the aid of salivary amylase, the bacteria utilise starch to produce an acidic environment similar to that of bacteria exposed to sucrose only. In the presence of fluoride, starch was more cariogenic which may be due to the bacteria producing a more hydrophobic intercellular matrix lowering the penetration of fluoride through the biofilm. This is significant as it indicates that the focus on sugars being the primary cause of caries may need re-evaluating and an increase in focus on carbohydrates is needed as they may be similarly cariogenic as sugars if not more so.
    • Quantifying the Demineralisation of Enamel Using a Hyperspectral Camera Measuring Fluorescence Loss

      Roberts, Jonathan M.; Bradshaw, David J.; Lynch, Richard J.M.; Higham, Susan M.; Valappil, Sabeel P.; University of Liverpool; GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2021-10-30)
      Background The gold standard for quantifying mineral loss of enamel is transverse microradiography (TMR) and is complimented by the non-destructive quantitative light induced fluorescence (QLF) which measures changes in autofluorescence. Fluorescence loss has been shown to correlate with mineral loss. Building upon the established method, the use of hyperspectral fluorescence imaging (HI) allows the capture of a broader range of wavelengths to quantify fluorescence changes more accurately. Methods Bovine Enamel was demineralised within the dual constant depth film fermenter over 14 days and analysed using TMR, QLF and HI. The mineral change values were compared using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. Results The analysis showed a statistically significant correlation that was equal between TMR and HI (r = 0.844) and TMR and QLF (r = 0.844), but weaker between QLF and HI (r = 0.811). Conclusions The correlations indicate that HI is a promising valid non-destructive method for quantifying mineral loss from bovine enamel that is as accurate as QLF and complements TMR.
    • The Process of Replication Target Selection in Psychology: What to Consider?

      Pittelkow, Merle-Marie; Field, Sarahanne M.; Isager, Peder M; van ’t Veer, Anna E; Anderson, Thomas; Cole, Scott N; Dominik, Tomás; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Gok, Sebahat; Heyman, Tom; et al. (The Royal Society, 2023-02-01)
      Increased execution of replication studies contributes to the effort to restore credibility of empirical research. However, a second generation of problems arises: the number of potential replication targets is at a serious mismatch with available resources. Given limited resources, replication target selection should be well justified, systematic, and transparently communicated. At present the discussion on what to consider when selecting a replication target is limited to theoretical discussion, self-reported justifications, and a few formalized suggestions. In this Registered Report, we proposed a study involving the scientific community to create a list of considerations for consultation when selecting a replication target in psychology. We employed a modified Delphi approach. First, we constructed a preliminary list of considerations. Second, we surveyed psychologists who previously selected a replication target with regards to their considerations. Third, we incorporated the results into the preliminary list of considerations and sent the updated list to a group of individuals knowledgeable about concerns regarding replication target selection. Over the course of several rounds, we established consensus regarding what to consider when selecting a replication target.
    • Effect of varying recovery intensities on power outputs during severe intensity intervals in trained cyclists during the Covid-19 pandemic.

      Chorley, Alan; Lamb, Kevin; University of Chester
      Purpose: The study aimed to investigate the effects of different recovery intensities on the power outputs of repeated severe intensity intervals and the implications for W′ reconstitution in trained cyclists. Methods: 18 trained cyclists (FTP 258.0 ± 42.7 W; weekly training 8.6 ± 1.7 h∙week-1) familiar with interval training, use of the Zwift® platform throughout the Covid-19 pandemic and previously established FTP (95% of mean power output from a 20-min test), performed 5 x 3-min severe intensity efforts interspersed with 2-min recoveries. Recovery intensities were: 50 W (LOW), 50% of functional threshold power (MOD), and self-selected power output (SELF). Results: Whilst power outputs declined as the session progressed, mean power outputs during the severe intervals across the conditions were not different to each other (LOW 300.1 ± 48.1 W; MOD: 296.9 ± 50.4 W; SELF: 298.8 ± 53.3 W) despite the different recovery conditions. Mean power outputs of the self-selected recovery periods were 121.7 ± 26.2 W. However, intensity varied during the self-selected recovery periods, with values in the last 15-s being greater than the first 15-s (p <0.001) and decreasing throughout the session (128.7 ± 25.4 W to 113.9 ± 29.3 W). Conclusions: Reducing recovery intensities below 50% of FTP failed to enhance subsequent severe intensity intervals, suggesting a lower limit for optimal W′ reconstitution had been reached. As self-selected recoveries were seen to adapt in order to maintain the severe intensity power output as the session progressed, adopting such a strategy might be preferential for interval training sessions.
    • The process of replication target selection in psychology: what to consider?

      Pittelkow, Merle-Marie; Field, Sarahanne M.; Isager, Peder M.; van’t Veer, Anna E.; Anderson, Thomas; Cole, Scott N.; Dominik, Tomáš; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Gok, Sebahat; Heyman, Tom; et al. (The Royal Society, 2023-02-01)
      Increased execution of replication studies contributes to the effort to restore credibility of empirical research. However, a second generation of problems arises: the number of potential replication targets is at a serious mismatch with available resources. Given limited resources, replication target selection should be well-justified, systematic and transparently communicated. At present the discussion on what to consider when selecting a replication target is limited to theoretical discussion, self-reported justifications and a few formalized suggestions. In this Registered Report, we proposed a study involving the scientific community to create a list of considerations for consultation when selecting a replication target in psychology. We employed a modified Delphi approach. First, we constructed a preliminary list of considerations. Second, we surveyed psychologists who previously selected a replication target with regards to their considerations. Third, we incorporated the results into the preliminary list of considerations and sent the updated list to a group of individuals knowledgeable about concerns regarding replication target selection. Over the course of several rounds, we established consensus regarding what to consider when selecting a replication target. The resulting checklist can be used for transparently communicating the rationale for selecting studies for replication.
    • An ethnographic investigation into multidisciplinary team collaboration - the role of psychological safety in a high-secure forensic in-patient hospital in Germany

      Lovell, Andrew; Mitchell, Andrew; Chapman, Hazel; Theunissen-Schuiten, Lettie (University of Chester, 2022-06)
      Background: Multidisciplinary team (MDT) collaboration in high-secure forensic in-patient hospitals is, although essential to the work, hardly studied. The culture of MDT collaboration differs due to their composition and the environment. Psychological safety (PS), that is the interpersonal feeling that the environment is safe enough to engage in MDT collaboration, without fear for personal consequences, could support staff to construct and better accumulate knowledge about patients between the different professions. Aim: To explore factors of influence on the culture of MDT collaboration and PS in the constantly changing MDT in day-to-day life. To understand how interactions with the environment and people in the environment become meaningful and are enhanced or create barriers which prevent staff from engaging in MDT collaboration. To study the role of PS and which factors, if any, influence it and how they interact with each other. Methodology/methods: A symbolic interactionist ethnographic methodology was used, with an emic approach to data collection and an eclectic approach to data analysis. Ten observations of weekly treatment meetings and 13 interviews (with a psychiatrist, a psychotherapist, a social worker, a teacher, five nurses, two ward mangers, two occupational therapists) were conducted and analysed through thematic analysis (TA). Reflexivity was used to constantly feedback on the role and presence of the researcher in the study. Findings: Four central themes were discovered: a shared approach to care; support and informal relationships; leadership and power and hierarchy; and PS, influenced by all and influencing all. The themes are visualised in a model of the social construction of MDT collaboration and PS. They are distinct and interrelated and discovered on four levels of social interaction in the hospital. The absence of a shared model of care, the supportive relationships, leadership, and the personal interpretation of the interactions between staff exerted the most influence on MDT collaboration and on PS. The absence of a multidisciplinary shared model of care kept the features of the total institution (TI) and the totality of the medical model in place. The traditional inequality and power issues between the professions responsible for the treatment and their knowledge, and the supporting staff created barriers to effective MDT collaboration and PS. The locally constructed meeting chaired by the nursing staff, the relationships, support, sub-teams, and inclusive leadership and behaviour enhanced both MDT collaboration and PS as a team emergent state (TES). These factors promote a culture of equality, belonging and perceived value. However, without a shared model of care, the relationships and perceived equality and support in sub-teams promoted dependencies on the knowledge and the support of others and revealed detrimental effects of high PS in sub-teams on MDT collaboration. Implications: MDT collaboration is complex and requires an unequivocal, carefully designed setting informed by a shared model of care with meaningful roles for all professions, inclusive leadership, and supportive informal relationships. Findings include the need to: diminish the deeply embedded unequal culture of collaboration informed by the TI and the medical model; diminish the dependencies on knowledge and support of others; promote an innovative culture of safe MDT collaboration with no fear for personal consequences for its members. Further recommendations for practice, education, and further research have been made.
    • Lockdown Diaries: merging fact and fiction in auto/biographical research

      Bennett, Julia; University of Chester
      From January to March 2021 the UK experienced its third Covid lockdown. By this time, 10 months after the first UK lockdown started, the scenario of staying at home, working from home and home schooling had become familiar. Towards the end of, so far, the final full lockdown in England, and on the day of the budget announcements, people from across the UK were asked to complete one day diaries for this project. The diaries, along with media accounts and other publicly accessible data, have been used to create a series of short fictionalised narratives of one day during the pandemic. Based on the autobiographical accounts the participants produced, the stories explore how people from different backgrounds, life stages and geographical areas spent their time during lockdown, highlighting both shared and very different experiences across and between places and age groups. The stories draw attention to mundane everyday lives during this time. The relatively experimental method of creating composite characters taken from real life also provides material for exploring how the use of fiction (here biographical fiction) in research can work to help to bring social science research into the public realm.
    • Understanding Lived Experiences of Food Insecurity through a Paraliminality Lens

      Moraes, Caroline; McEachern, Morven G.; Gibbons, Andrea; Scullion, Lisa; University of Bristol; University of Chester; University of Salford; University of Salford (Sage Publications, 2021-04-30)
      This article examines lived experiences of food insecurity in the United Kingdom as a liminal phenomenon. Our research is set within the context of austerity measures, welfare reform and the precarity experienced by increasing numbers of individuals. Drawing on original qualitative data, we highlight diverse food insecurity experiences as transitional, oscillating between phases of everyday food access to requiring supplementary food, which are both empowering and reinforcing of food insecurity. We make three original contributions to existing research on food insecurity. First, we expand the scope of empirical research by conceptualising food insecurity as liminal. Second, we illuminate shared social processes and practices that intersect individual agency and structure, co-constructing people’s experiences of food insecurity. Third, we extend liminality theory by conceptualising paraliminality, a hybrid of liminal and liminoid phenomena that co-generates a persistent liminal state. Finally, we highlight policy implications that go beyond short-term emergency food access measures.
    • The Role of Community-led Food Retailers in Enabling Urban Resilience

      McEachern, Morven; Warnaby, Gary; Moraes, Caroline; University of Chester; University of Huddersfield; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Birmingham (MDPI, 2021-07-06)
      Our research examines the extent to which community-led food retailers (CLFRs) contribute to the resilience and sustainability of urban retail systems and communities in the UK, contributing to existing debates on the sustainability and resilience of the UK’s urban retail sector. While this literature has predominantly focused on the larger retail multiples, we suggest more attention be paid to small, independent retailers as they possess a broader, more diffuse spatiality and societal impact than that of the immediate locale. Moreover, their local embeddedness and understanding of the needs of the local customer base, provide a key source of potentially sustainable competitive advantage. Using spatial and relational resilience theories, and drawing on 14 original qualitative interviews with CLFRs, we establish the complex links between community, place, social relations, moral values, and resilience that manifest through CLFRs. In doing so, we advance the conceptualization of community resilience by acknowledging that to realize the networked, resilient capacities of a community, the moral values and behavior of the retail community needs to be ascertained. Implications and relevant recommendations are provided to secure a more sustainable set of capacities needed to ensure resilient, urban retail systems, which benefit local communities.
    • The Sensuous Pastoral: Vision and Text in Pre-Raphaelite Art

      Leahy, Richard; University of Chester
      Much of the recent scholarly criticism of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood has focused on the relationship between Artist and Muse. Dinah Roe, in her introduction to her edited collection of Pre-Raphaelite Poetry, states that ‘Pre-Raphaelitism maintained strict demarcations between women’s roles (as muses) and men’s (as creators).’ This paper, however, will suggest that through the use of shared pastoral metaphors and imagery, female Pre-Raphaelite poets gained a sense of agency through appropriating techniques used by male poets. This was also further encouraged by Pre-Raphaelite muses’ writing of poetry, and the highly visual intertextuality between portraiture and the written word. The minutiae of detail employed in descriptions of pastoral scenes in such poems as Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s ‘The Blessed Damozel’, ‘Genius in Beauty’ and ‘Silent Noon’ (amongst others) are explored to a depth that exposes the Pre-Raphaelites’ use of the natural to explore sensuality: ‘Your hands lie open in the long fresh grass, - the finger-points look through like rosy blooms’ writes Dante Gabriel Rossetti in ‘Silent Noon’. This marriage of body and nature, with an intense attention to sensual visuality, is highly characteristic of the Pre-Raphaelites almost erotic evolution of Romantic literary sensibilities. Similar imagery is employed in the works of female Pre-Raphaelite writers. Elizabeth Siddal, most well-known for being Dante’s muse for a number of his artworks, as well as his sister, Christina Rossetti employ a similar sensuous focus on natural detail to exemplify their position as objects of desire. Rossetti’s use of the Petrarchan Sonnet form, most commonly used as a medieval expression of courtly love, also contributes to this idea. This paper will explore how the patterns of such imagery react to the pastoral eroticism of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, and how this appropriation may be seen to reclaim feminine sexuality and desire. At the core of the argument will be the intensely visual relationship between muse and artist, and the Pre-Raphaelites’ interest in conversions of image to text, and text to image.
    • Trains and Brains: Splitting the Self in Sensation Fiction

      Leahy, Richard; University of Chester (McFarland, 2021-09-30)
      This article will study the relationships between mid-nineteenth century developments in the understanding of psychology and the influence of rail networks. It will take a selection of Sensation fiction as its case study, a genre that has already been detailed to have an intimate relationship with the railways. Considered by some cultural commentators to be ‘railway literature’ in itself, this genre depicts what Nicholas Daly calls ‘the modernisation of the senses’. Railway travel, and the rapidity of new modes of modernity, often dictate the movement of Sensation narratives, and this paper aims to explore the psychological effects of such innovation on the psyches of key characters within the chosen texts. Critical analysis will be mainly focused on three texts, each from a different author in order to show the diverse representation of railway travel’s links with issues of the mind and self. Mary Elizabeth Braddon’s Lady Audley’s Secret will be analysed with the mental states of both the titular Lady Audley and her investigator Robert Audley, and their use of rail travel, in mind. Wilkie Collins’s No Name will be examined in terms of the effects that rail travel has on identity, as well as how the technology is used as a plot device within the sensation narrative. Bolstering the literary analysis will be an examination of the effect of the railway on social and individual psyches, as detailed by both historians and contemporary commentators. The paper draws many ideas from the work of Wolfgang Schivelbusch’s text The Railway Journey: The Industrialization of Time and Space; of particular interest are his Marxist interpretations of the space of the train carriage, and the essential liminality associated with it. As well as this, nineteenth-century psychology will also be addressed, including the influence of industry and networks on Herbert Spencer’s theories of Social Darwinism, and Sigmund Freud’s notion of the fugueur – a figure that emerged through his research and writing on trains and rail travel that subsequently influenced the quintessentially nineteenth-century idea of the flâneur. My paper will attempt to expose the psychological influence of rail travel on the individual self through an analysis of Sensation fiction, and how discourses of the two phenomena (railways and psychology) often seemed to share conceptual frameworks and lexical fields.
    • Velocity distribution of liquid phase at gas-liquid two-phase stratified flow based on particle image velocimetry

      Han, Bangbang; Gao, Qixin; Liu, Xu; Ge, Bin; Faraj, Yousef; Fang, Lide
      Horizontal gas-liquid flows are commonly encountered in the production section of the oil and gas industry. To further understand all parameters of the pipe cross-section, this paper use particle image velocimetry to study the circular pipe cross-section liquid velocity distribution rule. Firstly the focus is on the software and hardware combination of image correction system, to solve the influence of different refractive indexes of medium and pipeline curvature caused by image distortion. Secondly, the velocity distribution law of the corrected stratified flow (the range of liquid flow of 0.09–0.18 m3/h, and gas flow range of 0.3–0.7 m3/h) cross-section at different flow points of the pipeline cross-section at x  = 0 and in the Y direction at the maximum liquid velocity is studied. It is found that these distribution laws are caused by the influence of the interphase force of the gas-liquid interface and the resistance of the pipe wall. The current measurements also produce a valuable data set that can be used to further improve the stratified flow model for gas-liquid flow.
    • V for Viking

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Brepols, 2023)
      What is the most famous ‘Viking funeral’ in modern popular culture? I present a case for the funeral of V in the dystopian fiction of the 1980s graphic novel V for Vendetta and its 2005 film adaptation. Building on earlier roots, the nineteenth-century creation of the Vikings and the Viking Age (c.750–1050) took place through fiction, literary and historical scholarship but also through prominent and influential archaeological investigations of artefacts, sites and monuments in which funerary practices were central and captured the popular imagination. Tied to concepts of feud, fate and faith, this fascination with Old Norse deathways and concepts of the afterlife focused on the conception that the Vikings burned their dead in boats or ships set adrift on open water. By tackling one manifestation of this modern engagement with this imagined Viking past, this epilogue serves as a case study for rethinking the complexity and entanglement of Viking themes in contemporary arts and media, but also to rethink academic public engagements, teaching and research in both Viking and Vikingist studies, and thus medieval/medievalist scholarship more broadly, to counter extremist appropriations.
    • Public Viking Research in Museums and Beyond

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Swedish Archaeological Society, 2022-12-23)
      The popularity of the Vikings remains a mixed blessing for archaeologists and heritage practitioners; they are ‘victims of their own success’ on multiple registers (Croix 2015). This is all the more so because, over the last decade at least, we have been unquestionably living through a global ‘Viking revival’ (Birkett 2019:4). Today, Vikings are a focus of identity, faith, politics, consumerism and escapism in which archaeological sources are drawn upon in rich and complex fashions. I have three critical points to make which aim to support and extend, not detract from or devalue, Sindbæk’s insights and inferences: ‘where’s the evidence?’; ‘what’s the context?’; ‘what do we do about it?’ These points together lead me to propose we must collectively adopt a refreshed and reinvigorated agenda to pursue dedicated and sustained ‘Public Viking Research’ into today’s Vikingisms in museums and elsewhere.
    • Perfectionism among young female competitive Irish dancers: prevalence and relationship with injury responses

      Pentith, Rebecca; Moss, Samantha; Lamb, Kevin; Edwards, Carmel; University of Chester (J. Michael Ryan Publishing, 2021-03-29)
      This study investigated the prevalence of perfectionism among young female competitive Irish dancers and examined the relationships between perfectionistic tendencies and coping strategies used when experiencing injury. Sixty-eight female dancers (Mean age: 14 ± 2.3 years) completed the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale and the Ways of Coping Questionnaire and provided a record of injuries incurred during their championship careers. Participants reported 189 injuries, mostly involving the lower extremities. Seventy-nine percent of dancers reported perfectionistic tendencies (mixed perfectionism 40%, pure self-oriented perfectionism 29%, pure socially prescribed perfectionism 10%), and most frequently adopted “planful problemsolving,” “seeking social support,” “distancing,” and “self-controlling” strategies to cope with injury. Perfectionism and two coping strategies were found to be significantly related (p = 0.03); “planful problem-solving” was typically used “quite a bit or a great deal” by the mixed perfectionism group, but only “somewhat” by the non-perfectionism group, whereas “confrontive coping” was typically not used by the non-perfectionism group but was used “somewhat” by the mixed perfectionism group. Given the presence of such a large degree of perfectionism and the simultaneous employment of problem- and emotion-focused strategies when coping with injuries, it is suggested that medical practitioners acknowledge such tendencies when supporting their dancers in order to reduce the likelihood of negative psychological impact.
    • Introducing open-book examinations in clinical education: A case study

      Smith, Peter M.; Bowles, Joanne; Jellicoe, Mark; Mathur, Manu; Molyneux, Lorraine; Randell, Leigh-Ann; Smith, Richard N.; Valappil, Sabeel P. (Liverpool University Press, 2023-01)
    • Doctors and their families

      Benbow, Susan M. (SAGE Publications, 2023-01-18)
      Objective This article reflects on the relationship between doctors and their families and how it influences a doctor’s health, well-being and practice and the health and well-being of other family members. It uses an established model for conceptualising this recursive relationship, drawing on systemic and communications theory, coordinated management of meaning. The article invites doctors to reflect on relational influences between them and their families across the course of their career and following retirement. Conclusion Families are important to, and influence, the well-being of their doctor-members. Likewise, doctors are important to, and influence, the health and well-being of their families.
    • Sustainable and Inclusive Growth Commission Inclusive Economy Working Group Evidence Report

      Davies, Chantal; University of Chester
      This report sets out an overview of the evidence collated by the Inclusive Economy Working Group (IEWG) in line with the timetable provided by the Sustainable and Inclusive Growth Commission (SIGC). It commences with an outline of the IEWG remit as agreed following consultation. It then explores the nature of inclusive growth (IG) and the legislative context. The report then moves onto a discussion of the data collected on inequalities at a sub-regional, local authority and national level before setting out the activities which are already being rolled out in relation to the IG agenda at a local level. Finally, the report will set out exemplar approaches towards IG beyond the sub-region before exploring how the evidence collated will inform next steps for the IEWG feeding into the SIGC timetable for action and the SIGC Report which was launched in November 2022.