Now showing items 21-40 of 7719

    • Working After Loss: How Bereavement Counsellors Experience Returning to Therapeutic Work After the Death of Their Parent

      Swinden, Dr. Colleen; orcid: 0000-0002-3076-0778 (SAGE Publications, 2021-12-29)
      Despite increased interest in the impact of external events on counsellors, surprisingly little has been written on counsellor bereavement. To address the research question: How do bereavement counsellors experience therapeutic work after the death of their parent? Interviews were conducted with four bereaved counsellors who reflected on its impact on their work. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Three major themes emerged; how decisions about returning to work were informed by colleagues and supervision; the benefits of returning to work and the use of ‘bracketing’; long-term implications for practice including heightened empathy with clients’ and disclosure of loss. In addition, participants felt they had insufficient guidance regarding fitness to practice. The possible limitations of the study were that self-selection may have introduced an element of bias to the results. These findings support existing literature and also revealed potential gaps in grief and loss training for counsellors and supervisors. A particular training issue for supervisors might be identifying and discussing fitness to practice issues with supervisees. There are also implications for counsellors in terms of the use of self-disclosure in therapy. Suggested further research to explore the use of self-disclosure in greater depth.
    • Preliminary investigation of the effects of a concert on the behavior of zoo animals

      Stanley, Christina; Harley, Jessica; Rowden, Lewis; Clifforde, Lisa; Power, Aisling; University of Chester; Knowsley Safari Park, ZSL; Tayto Park
      To increase visitor footfall and engagement, zoos may host public events which may extend outside of typical opening hours. With plans to hold a 2-day concert at Tayto Park, Ireland, this study aimed to identify the behavioral response to the music event of a selected group of species in the zoo. Twenty-two species were observed across three Phases of the event (pre-, during and post-event). Specific behaviors of interest were categorized as active, resting, asleep, abnormal, and out of sight, with repeated observations being made at each enclosure during each Phase. Alongside these behavioral data, Sound Pressure Levels (SPLs) were concurrently recorded at the observation locations in terms of both dB(A) and dB(C). The median dB(C) levels during the event were found to be significantly higher (mdn = 64.5dB) when compared with both pre- (mdn = 60.7dB) and post-event Phases (mdn = 59.4dB), whilst dB(A) levels were only significantly higher during the event (51.7dB) when compared with the pre-event Phase (mdn = 49.8dB). We found some species-specific behavioral changes (mainly associated with active and resting behaviors) correlated with increased SPLs and/or event itself. However, the behavioral responses varied between species and there were numerous species which did not respond with any change in behavior to the increased SPLs or the event itself. This variation in response across species reinforces the need for monitoring of behavioral changes as well as consideration of their natural behavioral ecology when implementing appropriate mitigation strategies. Further research should be encouraged to provide evidence-based assessment of how music events may affect animal welfare and behavior and to test the efficacy of mitigation strategies that are implemented to safeguard animal welfare.
    • Recommendations for Transdisciplinary Professional Competencies and Ethics for Animal-Assisted Therapies and Interventions.

      Trevathan-Minnis, Melissa; Johnson, Amy; orcid: 0000-0003-3536-9193; Howie, Ann R (2021-12-02)
      AAI is a transdisciplinary field that has grown exponentially in recent decades. This growth has not always been synergistic across fields, creating a need for more consistent language and standards, a call for which many professionals in the field have made. Under the umbrella of human-animal interactions (HAI) is animal-assisted interventions (AAIs), which have a more goal-directed intention with animals who have been assessed for therapeutic, educational, or vocational work. The current article offers a brief history and efficacy of HAI, describes the limitations and gaps within the field and recommends a new set of competencies and guidelines that seek to create some of the needed common language and standards for AAI work to address these limitations.
    • Human-controlled reproductive experience may contribute to incestuous behavior observed in reintroduced semi-feral stallions (Equus caballus)

      Stanley, Christina; Górecka-Bruzda, Alexandra; Jaworska, Joanna; Siemieniuch, Marta; Jaworski, Zbigniew; Wocławek-Potocka, Izabela; Lansade, Lea; University of Chester; Polish Academy of Sciences; University of Warmia and Mazury; Centre INRAE Val-de-Loire (Elsevier, 2021-12-17)
      Equine reproductive behavior is affected by many factors, some remaining poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that a period of captivity during the juvenile period and human-controlled reproduction may potentially be involved in the disruption of the development of incestuous mating avoidance behavior in sanctuary-reintroduced male Konik polski horses. Between 1986 and 2000, cases of incestuous behavior in harem stallions born and reared until weaning in the sanctuary were studied. Eight males lived in the sanctuary’s feral herd for the rest of their lives (the non-captive group; nC). They gained their own harem of mares without human intervention (no human-controlled reproductive activity, nHC). Another five stallions were removed as weanlings, reared in captivity and then reintroduced as adults (captive, C). Three of these C stallions were used as in-hand breeding stallions, one as a “teaser” (human-controlled reproductive activity, HC) and one was not used for reproduction in captivity (nHC). Reproductive records for 46 mares, daughters of all 13 harem stallions, were scrutinized and cases of incestuous breeding were recorded by interrogation of foal parentage records. C stallions failed to expel more daughters than nC stallions (33% vs. 18%, P = 0.045), and mated with significantly more of them (28% vs. 11%, P = 0.025). Interestingly, HC stallions expelled fewer (60%) and successfully mated with more (33%) daughters that nHC stallions (84% expelled, P = 0.013, and 10% successful mating with daughters, P = 0.010). All HC stallions bred incestuously at least once. We propose that human intervention during a critical period of development of social and reproductive behavior in young stallions, by enforced separation from their natal herd and in-hand breeding, may contribute to their later aberrant behavior and disruption of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in these stallions. The previous occurrence of human-controlled breeding may be one of the factors promoting incestuous behavior of stallions in natural conditions. The uninterrupted presence of stallions in their harems and herd member recognition may also play important roles in inbreeding avoidance in horses.
    • Playful Encounters: Games for Geopolitical Change

      Bos, Daniel; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2021-12-07)
      Bringing together literatures on play, (video) games, and alter- (native) geopolitics this paper explores how digital games offer playful encounters that challenge popular understandings of geopolitics. While geographical scholarship has exposed the ways video games promote geopolitical and militaristic cultures, this paper concentrates on the disruptive qualities of play. More specifically, the paper focuses on This War of Mine (2014), a game which fosters playful encounters that encourage the player to reflect on the everyday consequences of conflict in urban spaces and their civilian populations. Drawing on an analysis of player reviews of the game, this paper demonstrates how play shapes imaginaries of the geopolitical context(s) of urban conflict and stimulates players to reflect on their attitudes towards violence. In doing so, the paper critically demonstrates how digital games offer important cultural outlets in encountering alternative understandings of geopolitics.
    • Modeling cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis.

      Mc Auley, Mark Tomás; orcid: 0000-0001-9230-6928 (2021-12-20)
      Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among Western populations. Many risk factors have been identified for ASCVD; however, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remains the gold standard. Cholesterol metabolism at the cellular and whole-body level is maintained by an array of interacting components. These regulatory mechanisms have complex behavior. Likewise, the mechanisms which underpin atherogenesis are nontrivial and multifaceted. To help overcome the challenge of investigating these processes mathematical modeling, which is a core constituent of the systems biology paradigm has played a pivotal role in deciphering their dynamics. In so doing models have revealed new insights about the key drivers of ASCVD. The aim of this review is fourfold; to provide an overview of cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis, to briefly introduce mathematical approaches used in this field, to critically discuss models of cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis, and to highlight areas where mathematical modeling could help to investigate in the future. This article is categorized under: Cardiovascular Diseases > Computational Models. [Abstract copyright: © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.]
    • Are Alcohol and Drugs ever acceptable to Buddhists?

      Dossett, Wendy; University of Chester (Equinox Publishing, 2021-10-25)
      This short chapter explores the ways in which the fifth precept has been interpreted in different social locations, as well as Buddhist ritual use of entheogens, the association of spirituality and psychedelics, and Buddhist approaches to addiction recovery.
    • What is Pure Land Buddhism?

      Dossett, Wendy; University of Chester (Equinox Publishing, 2021-10-25)
      A short introductory essay on Pure Land Buddhism addressing its history, texts, teachings and internal diversity.
    • Effects of Radiation sterilization Dose on the Molecular Weight and Gelling Properties of Commercial Alginate Samples

      Mollah, M. Z. I.; email:; Rahaman, M S.; Faruque, M R I.; Khandaker, M U.; Osman, Hamid; Alamri, Sultan; Al-Assaf, Saphwan (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-12-20)
      To estimate the molecular weight (Mw) and gelling properties, a total of 26 alginate samples consisting of control (n = 13) and 15 kGy γ-irradiated (n = 13) samples were characterized through viscometric and gel permeation chromatography (GPC-MALLS) methods. Based on the observations, a remarkable decrease in the intrinsic viscosity of all samples of alginates was evident due to the effects of radiation, with a linear relationship between viscosity and concentration in 0.01 M NaCl solution. The correlation among the Mw, percentage mass recovery, radii of gyration (Rz/Rg), and percentage reduction of Mw assessed by GPC was significant. The Mw decreased dramatically (from 3.1 × 105 to 0.49 × 105 mole/g in sample no. 12) by the effect of radiation with momentous relation to the % reduction of the molecular weight. The highest molecular weight reduction (84%), which is the most sensitive to γ-radiation, and the average reduction rate was ≥50%. The mass recovery was 100% obtained from samples no. 1,3,4,5,7,12, and 13, while the rest of the samples’ recovery rate was significantly higher. The reduction rate of mass molecular weight (Mw) is higher than the average molecular weight (Mv), but they showed a sensitivity towards radiation, consequently their performance are different from each other. The stability test was performed as a critical behaviour in the control, recurrently same as in the irradiated samples. Thus, the sterilization dose of 15 kGy for the Mw distribution, and subsequently for the characterization, was significantly effective.
    • Bi-exponential modelling of [Formula: see text] reconstitution kinetics in trained cyclists.

      Chorley, Alan; orcid: 0000-0003-0000-3394; email:; Bott, Richard P; orcid: 0000-0002-7842-2436; Marwood, Simon; orcid: 0000-0003-4668-1131; Lamb, Kevin L; orcid: 0000-0003-4481-4711 (2021-12-18)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the individual [Formula: see text] reconstitution kinetics of trained cyclists following repeated bouts of incremental ramp exercise, and to determine an optimal mathematical model to describe [Formula: see text] reconstitution. Ten trained cyclists (age 41 ± 10 years; mass 73.4 ± 9.9 kg; [Formula: see text] 58.6 ± 7.1 mL kg min ) completed three incremental ramps (20 W min ) to the limit of tolerance with varying recovery durations (15-360 s) on 5-9 occasions. [Formula: see text] reconstitution was measured following the first and second recovery periods against which mono-exponential and bi-exponential models were compared with adjusted R and bias-corrected Akaike information criterion (AICc). A bi-exponential model outperformed the mono-exponential model of [Formula: see text] reconstitution (AICc 30.2 versus 72.2), fitting group mean data well (adjR  = 0.999) for the first recovery when optimised with parameters of fast component (FC) amplitude = 50.67%; slow component (SC) amplitude = 49.33%; time constant (τ)  = 21.5 s; τ  = 388 s. Following the second recovery, W' reconstitution reduced by 9.1 ± 7.3%, at 180 s and 8.2 ± 9.8% at 240 s resulting in an increase in the modelled τ to 716 s with τ unchanged. Individual bi-exponential models also fit well (adjR  = 0.978 ± 0.017) with large individual parameter variations (FC amplitude 47.7 ± 17.8%; first recovery: (τ)  = 22.0 ± 11.8 s; (τ)  = 377 ± 100 s; second recovery: (τ)  = 16.3.0 ± 6.6 s; (τ)  = 549 ± 226 s). W' reconstitution kinetics were best described by a bi-exponential model consisting of distinct fast and slow phases. The amplitudes of the FC and SC remained unchanged with repeated bouts, with a slowing of W' reconstitution confined to an increase in the time constant of the slow component. [Abstract copyright: © 2021. The Author(s).]
    • Synthesis of health promotion concepts in children's palliative care.

      Bennett, Virginia; Hain, Richard; Pritchard, Aaron W; Noyes, Jane (2021-12-02)
      Palliative care improves the health of children with a life-limiting condition and appears to draw implicitly on concepts shared with a model of health promotion. However, to date there has been no scrutiny about how this relationship may shape understanding about children's palliative care. To explore the influence of health promoting concepts on children's palliative care models, policies and guidelines. Health and social care databases were searched for policies, models and guidelines published between 2000-2018. Additional searches of professional national and international healthcare websites, children's palliative care charities and UK and Ireland government websites were conducted. A best fit framework synthesis was used. A total of 55 policies and guidelines were reviewed for the framework synthesis. Eight themes were generated: (1) health promoting children's palliative care policy and guidelines; (2) planning ahead; (3) creating a supportive environment; (4) enabling coping and independence; (5) reorienting children's palliative care sectors; (6) the lengthening trajectory of need for support; (7) strengthening community engagement in children's palliative care; and (8) quality of life and value-based ideologies. The best fit framework synthesis confirmed a conceptual relationship between children's palliative care and health promotion. This is captured in a new model that will extend professionals' understanding.
    • Invisible and at-risk: older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic.

      Benbow, Susan M; Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Kingston, Paul; Peisah, Carmelle (2021-12-16)
      During the COVID-19 pandemic the risks to older adults of systemic abuse and neglect have become amplified, alongside increasing abuse and neglect in the community. Novel risks have also evolved involving cybercrime and the use of remote technologies in health and social care related to the pandemic. This commentary brings together lessons to be learned from these developments and initial ideas for actions to mitigate future risks.
    • Modeling cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis

      Mc Auley, Mark Tomás; orcid: 0000-0001-9230-6928 (Wiley, 2021-12-20)
    • ‘He didn’t really talk about it’: the (re)construction and transmission of a Free French past

      Millington, Chris; Millington, Richard; orcid: 0000-0002-1324-9521 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-12-21)
    • The complementarities of digitalisation and productivity: redefining boundaries for financial sector

      Gul, Razia; Ellahi, Nazima; Leong, Kelvin; Malik, Qaiser Ali (Informa UK Limited, 2021-12-21)
    • Ischemic Heart Disease in Nigeria: Exploring the Challenges, Current Status, and Impact of Lifestyle Interventions on Its Primary Healthcare System

      Nnate, Daniel A.; orcid: 0000-0002-8432-9377; email:; Eleazu, Chinedum O.; email:; Abaraogu, Ukachukwu O.; orcid: 0000-0002-1967-1459; email: (MDPI, 2021-12-25)
      The burden of ischemic heart disease in Nigeria calls for an evidence-based, innovative, and interdisciplinary approach towards decreasing health inequalities resulting from individual lifestyle and poor socioeconomic status in order to uphold the holistic health of individuals to achieve global sustainability and health equity. The poor diagnosis and management of ischemic heart disease in Nigeria contributes to the inadequate knowledge of its prognosis among individuals, which often results in a decreased ability to seek help and self-care. Hence, current policies aimed at altering lifestyle behaviour to minimize exposure to cardiovascular risk factors may be less suitable for Nigeria’s diverse culture. Mitigating the burden of ischemic heart disease through the equitable access to health services and respect for the autonomy and beliefs of individuals in view of achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) requires comprehensive measures to accommodate, as much as possible, every individual, notwithstanding their values and socioeconomic status.
    • Arts-Aided Recognition of Citizens’ Perceptions for Urban Open Space Management

      Suomalainen, Sari; orcid: 0000-0003-4839-841X; email:; Kahiluoto, Helena; email:; Pässilä, Anne; email:; Owens, Allan; email:; Holtham, Clive; email: (MDPI, 2021-12-23)
      Urban open spaces of local natural environments can promote the health and well-being of both ecosystems and humans, and the management of the urban spaces can benefit from knowledge of individuals’/citizens’ perceptions of such environments. However, such knowledge is scarce and contemporary inquiries are often limited to cognitive observations and focused on built environmental elements rather than encouraged to recognize and communicate comprehensive perceptions. This paper investigates whether arts-based methods can facilitate recognition and understanding perceptions of urban open spaces. Two arts-based methods were used to capture perceptions: drifting, which is a walking method, and theatrical images, which is a still image method and three reflective methods to recognize and communicate the perceptions. The results show related sensations and perceptions enabled by arts-based methods comparing them to a sticker map method. The main findings were perceptions, which included information about human−environment interaction, about relations to other people and about ‘sense of place’ in urban open spaces. The hitherto unidentified perceptions about urban open space were associations, metaphors and memories. The methods used offer initial practical implications for future use.
    • Bleeding Data across Baseline FIX Expression Levels in People with Hemophilia B: An Analysis Using the 'Factor Expression Study'

      Burke, Tom; Shaikh, Anum; Ali, Talaha; Li, Nanxin; Konkle, Barbara A; Noone, Declan; O'Mahony, Brian; Pipe, Steven W; O'Hara, Jamie (Elsevier, 2021-12-24)
      Introduction Complications such as spontaneous and trauma-related bleeding events typically experienced by people with hemophilia B (PWHB) are associated with long-term joint damage and chronic pain, and burdensome treatment with intravenous factor IX administration. Gene therapy, designed to enable the endogenous production of the missing clotting factor, has potential for curative benefit in PWHB (Dolan et al, 2018). Due to its link to risk for bleeding episodes, factor expression level (FEL) is commonly used as an endpoint in hemophilia gene therapy trials. However, little data currently exist linking FEL to bleeding risk in PWHB, most notably within the mild range. As such, the aim of this analysis was to examine the relationship between annual bleed rate (ABR) data across baseline FEL in PWHB. Methods Data from adult non-inhibitor PWHB, across Europe and the United States (US) who received clotting factor on-demand (OD), were drawn from the 'Cost of HaEmophilia in adults: a Socioeconomic Survey' (CHESS) studies. The CHESS studies are retrospective, burden-of-illness studies in people with hemophilia A or B, capturing the economic and humanistic burden associated with living with hemophilia. Additional data were collected to supplement the existing CHESS studies, particularly in people with exogenous FEL in the mild and moderate range. ABR was defined as the physician-reported number of bleed events experienced by the patient in the 12 months to study capture. A generalized linear model (GLM) was used to analyze variation in ABR data across FEL, adjusting for covariates age, body mass index (BMI), and blood-borne viruses. Following this, a multivariable restricted cubic spline (RCS) GLM regression was performed to create, model, and test for the potential non-linear relationship between FEL and ABR. The RCS regression employed 3 knots, located at baseline FEL values of 1, 5, and 10, and controlled once again for age, BMI, and blood-borne viruses. Results A total of 407 adult non-inhibitor PWHB, receiving an OD therapy regimen and with information on ABR, were profiled. The GLM provided adequate fit for the modeling of bleed data; the average marginal effect at the mean was computed from the GLM regression outputs. After controlling for the effects of all other model covariates, the regression analysis showed a significant association between FEL and ABR; for every 1% increase in FEL, the average ABR decreased by 0.08 units (p<0.001). The results of the RCS regression found a significant non-linear relationship between FEL and ABR, ceteris paribus (p<0.001). Conclusions The results of this analysis found baseline FEL to be significantly associated with ABR in PWHB; as baseline FEL increased, ABR reduced. This highlights the clinical importance of new hemophilia gene therapies potentially increasing FEL to that of the mild or non-hemophilic range in terms of reducing patient burden through the better prevention of bleeding events in PWHB. Disclosures Ali:  UniQure: Current Employment. Li:  UniQure: Current Employment. Konkle:  Pfizer, Sangamo, Sanofi, Sigilon, Spark, Takeda and Uniqure: Research Funding; BioMarin, Pfizer and Sigilon: Consultancy. O'Mahony:  BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc.: Consultancy; Freeline: Consultancy; Uniqure: Speakers Bureau. Pipe:  Apcintex: Consultancy; ASC Therapeutics: Consultancy; Bayer: Consultancy; Biomarin: Consultancy, Other: Clinical trial investigator; Catalyst Biosciences: Consultancy; CSL Behring: Consultancy; HEMA Biologics: Consultancy; Freeline: Consultancy, Other: Clinical trial investigator; Novo Nordisk: Consultancy; Pfizer: Consultancy; Roche/Genentech: Consultancy, Other; Sangamo Therapeutics: Consultancy; Sanofi: Consultancy, Other; Takeda: Consultancy; Spark Therapeutics: Consultancy; uniQure: Consultancy, Other; Regeneron/ Intellia: Consultancy; Genventiv: Consultancy; Grifols: Consultancy; Octapharma: Consultancy; Shire: Consultancy.
    • Use of long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents for human immunodeficiency Virus: A review

      Ariyo, Olumuyiwa E; Jones, Christopher E (Elsevier, 2021-12-06)
      The development of potent antiretroviral drugs has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection, however, the effectiveness of these medications depends upon consistent daily oral intake. Non-adherence can lead to the emergence of resistance, treatment failure and disease progression. This has necessitated the development of long-acting antiretroviral formulations administrable via an infrequent dosing regimen. Long-acting injectable forms of cabotegravir and rilpivirine have reached various stages in clinical trials both for the treatment and prevention of HIV. Other long-acting agents are at various stages of development. This review evaluates the current research on the development of long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents for the treatment and prevention of HIV.
    • Regucalcin ameliorates Doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in Cos-7 kidney cells and translocates from the nucleus to the mitochondria.

      Mohammed, Noor A; Hakeem, Israa; Hodges, Nikolas J; Michelangeli, Francesco (2021-12-14)
      Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anti-cancer drug, which can have unwanted side-effects such as cardiac and kidney toxicity. A detailed investigation was undertaken of the acute cytotoxic mechanisms of DOX on kidney cells, using Cos-7 cells as kidney cell model. Cos-7 cells were exposed to DOX for a period of 24 hours over a range of concentrations and the LC50 was determined to be 7µM. Further investigations showed that cell death was mainly via apoptosis involving Ca2+ and caspase 9, in addition to autophagy. Regucalcin (RGN), a cytoprotective protein found mainly in liver and kidney tissues, was overexpressed in Cos-7 cells and shown to protect against DOX-induced cell death. Subcellular localization studies in Cos-7 cells showed RGN to be strongly correlated with the nucleus. However, upon treatment with DOX for 4 hours, which induced membrane blebbing in some cells, the localization appeared to be correlated more with the mitochondria in these cells. It is yet to be determined whether this translocation is part of the cytoprotective mechanism or a consequence of chemically-induced cell stress. [Abstract copyright: Copyright 2021 The Author(s).]